- Full Title: Best-Loved Cookies for Every Occasion
- Autor: MyRecipes
- Print Length: 143 pages
- Publisher: Oxmoor House
- Publication Date: December 11, 2012
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: B00AIRR1D4
- Download File Format | Size: epub | 3,70 Mb
ndon Bridge Street
London SE1 9GF
This edition published by Thorsons 2017
Text © Holly Willoughby 2017
Food photography © Danielle Wood 2017
Portrait photography © Jay Brooks 2017
Cover layout design ©HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2017
Cover photograph © Jay Brooks 2017
A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library
Holly Willoughby asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work
All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. By payment of the required fees, you have been granted the nonexclusive, non-transferable right to access and read the text of this e-book on screen. No part of this text may be reproduced, transmitted, downloaded, decompiled, reverse engineered, or stored in or introduced into any information storage retrieval system, in any form or by any means, whether electronic or mechanical, now known or hereinafter invented, without the express written permission of HarperCollins e-books.
While the author of this book has made every effort to ensure that the information contained in this book reflects NHS guidelines at the time of publication, medical knowledge is constantly changing and the application of it to particular circumstances depends on many factors. This book is intended as a reference volume only, not as a medical manual. The information given here is designed to help you make informed decisions about you and your baby, and it should be used to supplement rather than replace the advice of your doctor or other trained health professionals. Therefore it is recommended that a qualified medical specialist is always consulted for advice.
The nutrition and health claims made in this book have all been checked by a registered food nutritionist. All nutrition claims relating to ingredients themselves have been checked to ensure they contain levels of macro or micronutrients that warrant an EU-registered nutrition claim. Any other health claims made have been researched and do not state fact but indicate that this is what research suggests. Recommendations throughout the book are based on UK guidelines. Once a child has reached a suitable age, all recipes should be eaten in the context of a healthy, balanced diet. The author and publishers cannot be held responsible for any errors and omissions that may be found in the text, or any actions that may be taken by a reader as a result of any reliance on the information contained in the text.
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Source ISBN 9780008172565
Ebook Edition © September 2017 ISBN: 9780008172572
CHAPTER ONE: 6 months
CHAPTER TWO: 7–9 months
CHAPTER THREE: 9–12 months
CHAPTER FOUR: 12–15 months
CHAPTER FIVE: Babyled Weaning
CHAPTER SIX: 15 Months and Beyond
CHAPTER SEVEN: Party Time
CHAPTER EIGHT: Feeding the Whole Family
INDEX OF SEARCHABLE TERMS
ABOUT THE PUBLISHER
So here we are. Over the past six or so months, you and your baby have finally mastered the milk feed, and whether you’ve gone for breast or formula, all your hard work is plain to see in your baby’s growing weight on the scales. Whether you’ve found the whole experience a doddle or a struggle, you’ve done it, and the results are squidgeable! But in this ever-evolving world of baby, it’s time for change. It’s time for the next exciting step: to introduce your little bundle to the colourful, flavourful and wonderful world of food – something that may well be met with mixed emotions!
You might fall into the camp of mothers who have exclusively breastfed since day one and loved every nursing moment, hence the thought of having to give up some of these feeds to foreign food matter is a bit threatening. You might be one of those mothers who loves the ease of milk (whether breast or bottle) and so the thought of having to add the preparation of food to your already busy routine is simply horrifying. Or you might be the sort of mum who’s hated the whole milk-only phase and can’t wait to start cramming the freezer with ice cubes of liquidized carrot. Whichever category you fall into, the simple truth is that the time has come and you have to embrace the solid, for the good of your baby and her development.
It’s true that the thought of weaning can make even the most self-assured of mothers feel daunted. Not least because, as usual, there are decisions to be made. Do you go down the traditional route of spoon-feeding your little one lump-free purées, or do you investigate the newer ‘baby-led weaning’ approach and let your baby feed herself from the moment solid food first touches her lips? As with everything, there are no right or
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more you respect the result.’
This book celebrates sausages in all their spicy, salty, smoky and juicy glory. While it may not earn respect for these once-humble foods, it may elicit greater appreciation for their vast savouriness and variability, and reveal the way they (and we) have spread around the globe.
What is Sausage, and
Where Did it Originate?
When our early ancestors began to coordinate their hunting activities, giving them access to large animals – at least ones that were not already dead when they found them – they had to deal with a number of new technical problems. First was the size of the prey. The need to cut the fallen beasts into more convenient parcels led to the creation of better cutting tools, and bone, horn, stone and even fire-hardened wood provided the raw materials for a host of cutting and scraping implements. Second came spoilage: meat is one of the most perishable of foods, and early humans learned that smoking and drying could extend the period of time in which meat remained edible and safe. Our oldest written records show that we have long known that salt improves the quality and longevity of preserved meats. Surviving Sumerian clay tablets from Mesopotamia (1600 bc) are filled with references to salted meats.1 The third problem was packaging and the avoid-ance of waste. Hunting large animals involved considerable effort, and so it was critical that none of the animals’ flesh or organs be wasted. Somewhere in our ancient past, a hunter realized that the intestines, stomachs and skins of animals could be fashioned into convenient parcels for all the scraps of meat and organs that might otherwise be wasted.
It was inevitable that those three sets of considerations would lead to the creation of what we now know as sausage.
The savoury links have been invented, independently, in many parts of the world, and recipes and techniques have accompanied humans everywhere we have travelled. According to the food historian Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, ‘It may
fairly be said that the sausage-making tradition has survived uninterrupted for 200 years in both Rome and France, and the sausages themselves have remained much the same.’2
While the facts of the creation of the first sausage are lost in ancient times, we do know that it occurred at least 3,000
years ago. We know from murals that the ancient Egyptians made a kind of sausage from the blood of sacrificial cattle, but two of the earliest written accounts of sausages appeared in Homer’s Odyssey (eighth century bc):
Here are goat stomachs ready on the fire
to stuff with blood and fat, good supper pudding,
The man who wins this gallant bout
may step up here and take the one he likes. (Book 18,
Rolling from side to side
as a cook turns a sausage, big with blood
and fat, at a scorching blaze, without a pause,
to grill it quick. (Book 20, lines 24–7)
It is significant that each of these early accounts refers to blood sausage, a style that reflects the ‘no-waste’ attitudes of the past but is today found only in certain ethnic cuisines (and, increasingly, among adventurous ‘gourmet’ consumers). The accounts 10
also reflect the long use of goat – one of the most-consumed meats on the planet – and beef in sausages, a fact that is easily overlooked when we think of pork as the ideal forcemeat.
The practicality of sausages, no doubt, led to their independent invention in many places and, indeed, they are found almost everywhere. Some, as we shall see, have migrated with us to new places and evolved into new variants as a result.
Ingredients and methods have often changed in response to local conditions and taste. The number of possible variations on a seemingly simple culinary theme may not be infinite, but it is very large indeed.
Exactly what sausage is can be difficult to state precisely.
The broad category of charcuterie includes many sausage-like foods, and many that are not sausage at all. When we try to parse the exact details that make, or do not make, something
‘sausage’, we are stymied by contradictions and exceptions. As the American Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart famously said of obscenity, he cannot define it, but he knows it when he sees it.
Aix-en-Provence’s market in the Place des Prêcheurs.
Sausages may be simple patties of chopped, seasoned meat. In fact, one of the oldest specific sausage references was to the Roman insicia, a name derived from the Latin word for chopped meat (which was, in turn, derived from the Greek isikion, which referred only to chopped meat; the Greeks’
generic word for sausage was alla). Our recipes, and the words we use to describe them, have very long genealogies. While cookbooks (when they exist) can tell us when dishes were first committed to writing, sometimes the names of the foods themselves can tell us about how and when they came to be.
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u lift it.
Very gently fold in the flour a little at a time with a metal spoon – you want to keep as much air in the mixture as possible.
Then, again very gently, fold in the melted butter.
With a spoon, turn the mixture into your trays and tilt it so that it spreads into the corners.
Bake in the preheated oven for 12–15 minutes until golden and the centre is springy to the touch. With shallow tray sponges like this you can tell easily when they are done, so there is no real need to do the skewer test – though you can, if you prefer.
When the sponge is baked, turn out onto a cooling rack. Now the sponge is ready to use in your chosen recipe. Or to freeze, leave the sponge on its greaseproof paper, put another layer on top, and wrap well in clingfilm before putting into the freezer, where it will keep for around three months.
For chocolate genoise
sieve 1 tablespoon of cocoa powder with the flour.
For coffee genoise
sieve 1 tablespoon of very fine instant ground coffee with the flour.
For vanilla genoise
add either 1 teaspoon of vanilla extract, 1 teaspoon of vanilla bean paste, or the seeds of one vanilla pod to the mixture with the egg and sugar.
For orange genoise
add the grated zest of one orange, and a drop of orange essence or orange flower essence to the mixture before folding in the flour.
For lemon genoise
add the grated zest of one lemon and a drop of lemon essence to the mixture before folding in the flour.
Choux is so fashionable – in every pastry class we run at the cookery school it is the technique that most people want to learn. It is the great versatile classic that any apprentice patissier must master, and the more often you make it the easier it will become. Don’t be afraid to double or even quadruple the recipe below, pipe it into different shapes from round buns to little éclairs, bake them and then keep them in the freezer, to bring out any time you need a last-minute dessert.
This recipe makes around 500g of dough, enough for the Paris Brest here, éclairs here and Gâteau St Honoré here. For the Croque en Bouche here – the festive tower of choux buns – you will need to triple the quantity. One quantity of dough can be made easily by hand; however, if you are making bigger quantities, I suggest you use a food mixer with a paddle attachment.
125g plain flour
4 medium eggs
½ teaspoon salt
Sieve the flour into a bowl and have the eggs ready in another bowl.
Bring the water, butter and salt to the boil in a large pan.
Tip in the flour, whisking all the time.
Continue whisking until the mixture clings to the whisk and resembles mashed potato.
Swap the whisk for a wooden spoon and beat over the heat for 2–3 minutes until the mixture is glossy and comes away from the edges of the pan cleanly. Then, if using a food mixer with a paddle attachment, transfer the mixture to the bowl now, otherwise leave the mixture in the pan and take the pan off the heat.
Add the eggs, one by one, either beating them in by hand or with the motor running. Whether mixing by hand or by machine, go carefully with the eggs. Add them one at a time, making sure each one is well incorporated before adding the next. Before you add the last one, check the texture. You are aiming for a mixture that is smooth and glossy but that will hold its shape for piping (it is better to be slightly too stiff than too runny). If it is almost at this stage you might not need to add all of the last egg.
Now the dough is ready to use.
Piping choux pastry
One of the things I am asked about most in my classes is how to fill a piping bag cleanly, whether for piping choux pastry, cream or icing. The best way to do it is to turn the bag inside out over one hand and, with the other hand, fill it half full only. This helps to stop the mixture smearing over the outside of the bag as you fill it. Pull up the sides of the bag and twist the top so that the mixture is forced down towards the nozzle.
To pipe, hold the bag in one hand, with the other hand underneath to steady and guide it. Squeeze with the hand that is holding the bag, pipe, then turn the bag anticlockwise, squeeze again, applying the same pressure all the time, and pipe again.
A note about baking choux pastry
When you bake choux pastry, the heat of the oven causes the pastry to expand and become hollow inside. The trick to keeping choux buns, éclairs, and so on, puffed up and crispy so that they don’t deflate (crucial for something like the Croque en Bouche here) is to dry out the pastry well during baking. Don’t be scared of leaving them in the oven longer than you might expect. I have seen recipes that suggest taking out é
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dients are called for (mostly in the desserts!), lower-fat alternatives are used so even the most indulgent recipes are healthier than their taste suggests.
DELICATE YET FLAVOURSOME
Think of steaming and a healthy, delicate-tasting meal comes to mind. Sometimes a wholesome dinner of plainly steamed salmon with a steamed vegetable like broccoli or French beans is exactly what you need, but you wouldn’t need a whole cookbook to show you how to go about preparing such a meal. Fresh and light doesn’t have to mean dull, so to make up for the plainness of the cooking method you should include strong, gutsy flavours to excite the senses. These simple ideas are used throughout the book to create flavoursome steamed dishes without resorting to fatty sauces and condiments:
Marinate meat or fish before steaming. Whether you make a Mediterranean marinade with lemon, thyme and chilli or an oriental marinade with soy sauce, ginger and spring onions, a marinade will guarantee a tasty result.
Aromatize the steam with herbs, spices or the zest of citrus fruits. Scatter your flavouring of choice over the food before cooking, just before you put the lid on the steamer. In no time the vapour in your pan will be beautifully aromatized, as will whatever you are steaming. This is much more effective than adding aromas to the boiling water in your steamer.
Steam in a dish or parcel with other flavourings. By steaming food in a dish, or wrapped inside a parcel, you can add whatever dry or liquid flavouring you like to it while it’s still raw. Ingredients like onions or garlic won’t caramelize, as they would when cooked over a flame, and sauces won’t reduce and thicken, so the final result will be delicate yet flavoursome.
Different techniques for steaming
Food is placed directly on a perforated stand that sits in a lidded pan, over steaming liquid. The food cooks in the trapped steam.
Food is placed in a shallow heatproof dish with flavourings and cooked on a trivet or perforated stand that sits in a lidded pan with steaming liquid. This technique is often used in oriental cooking.
The food is wrapped in foil; banana, pandanus or vegetable leaf; or in sweetcorn husks, before cooking on a trivet or perforated stand that sits in a lidded pan with steaming liquid. This method protects the surface of the food from becoming overcooked. (See The Science of Steaming, here.)
The food cooks in a closed container inside a lidded pan, with water coming halfway up the sides of the container. As the water in the food evaporates it contributes to the cooking of the food. This technique is commonly used when steaming large puddings, for example.
Individual containers of food are covered and placed on a trivet or perforated stand that sits in a lidded pan with steaming liquid. The food cooks in the trapped steam.
Food is placed in a bowl with flavourings, then liquid is added to the bowl to completely submerge the food. The bowl is then covered with foil and cooked on a trivet or perforated stand that sits in a lidded pan with steaming liquid. This is the Chinese double-boiling technique for cooking soups.
The food cooks in a combination of boiling and steaming, as with steamed rice where you start cooking the rice in a lidded pan of boiling water, which is then left off the heat for the rice to finish cooking in its own steam.
The food cooks in the oven in a sealed paper or foil parcel with a little liquid. As the liquid in the parcel turns into vapour it creates a hot, moist environment where the food steams.
Basic steps for steaming food
Fill the pan with about 5 cm (2 in) of water and heat the water to a simmer or boil, depending on the recipe. Water must be brought to the boil before the food is placed in the steamer, so the steam seals the food the moment they come into contact. If you put food into a cold steamer, not only will the cooking time increase, but the food will lose more of its natural juices.
Place a perforated implement (different varieties are described in the Steaming Equipment section here) in the pan. The boiling water should not come up to the level of the stand or trivet, otherwise you risk the water boiling over into the food.
Place the food directly onto the perforated stand or into a container to be placed on the stand. Don’t pile the food too tightly or too high in the pan, or the steam won’t be able to circulate properly and the food won’t cook evenly. If steaming the food in a shallow dish, make sure the dish is not too big for your steamer. The steam needs space to circulate and have access to the food.
Close the pan with a tight-fitting lid and avoid opening the lid unnecessarily during cooking, or you will lose the concentration of steam, and slow down the cooking.
Even with a tight-fitting lid, some steam will escape, or condense onto the plate with the food, so if the r
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¼–½ tsp fresh ginger root, grated
1-2 tsp maple syrup, depending how sweet you like it
Preheat your oven to 375°F (190°C). With an apple corer, take out a large portion of the apple core by carving a hole from the top of the apple to nearly the bottom—don’t puncture the apple all the way through.
In a small mixing bowl, toss the raisins, walnuts, maple, cinnamon, vanilla, ginger and sea salt together.
Place the cored apples in a baking pan and stuff them with the mixture. Add a small amount of coconut oil to the top of each stuffed apple.
Add a few splashes of water directly on top of the stuffed apples and place them into the oven. Keep adding a splash of water to each apple every 10 minutes as it bakes—this keeps them moist. Cook the apples for about 40 to 45 minutes, or until they’re soft and the skin is golden brown.
In the meantime, make the coconut cream by simply stirring all the ingredients together in a bowl.
Remove the apples from the oven and cool for 10 minutes. Top the apples with a sprinkling of extra nuts and serve each apple with a drizzle of the ginger-coconut cream.
Green Morning Smoothie
I was 24 years old, stuck in a work-life limbo, and I guess I was having what you might call an early quarter-life crisis. I quit my job, started a food blog and enrolled in night classes, all in the pursuit of getting a Masters in Nutrition. On that impulsive path, I signed up for an intensive 6-week, 7 a.m., all day long, all week long, summer chemistry course. This was the smoothie that accompanied me on those god-awful early morning drives down the peninsula.
When mornings are tight and you can’t swing oatmeal or pancakes, this is the smoothie you want to have in your hand when walking out the door. It’s loaded with the healthy breakfast essentials—almond milk, chia seeds, spinach, yogurt and banana—but with an unexpected pop of tropical flavor from the pineapple. That sweet taste was the highlight of those hectic morning drives. Quarter-life crisis or not, this smoothie reinforces that healthy breakfasts really don’t need to take longer than 5 minutes.
SERVES 1 / V, GF
1 frozen banana, chopped
¾ cup (115 g) pineapple, chopped
¾ cup (177 ml) almond milk
¼” (5-mm) piece of fresh ginger root, peeled (optional, but it adds a great kick)
Handful of spinach leaves
1 tbsp (10 g) chia seeds
1 tbsp (12 g) flax meal or powder
1 heaping scoop of the yogurt of your choice
Place all the ingredients in a blender and blend on high speed until it is completely smooth and there are no banana or spinach pieces. Pour into a glass and enjoy immediately!
Tip: You can always make this smoothie the night before, seal it up in a mason jar and store it in your fridge for your morning breakfast. Just leave the chia seeds and flax out if you do this! They will clump together otherwise.
Honey-Poached Pears over Black-Sesame Granola and Yogurt
The first and last time I ever made an extravagant breakfast was when I was trying to impress a boyfriend by making cinnamon rolls from scratch. I should have tossed the recipe when I read that I needed to come home 12 hours later to roll out the dough. You see, I was 22, in college and 12 hours later meant leaving a party early on a Saturday night. Though the rolls did come out delicious, I ended up burning the face of my then-boyfriend when the hot icing slid off the bun and landed right on his chin, scarring it. With this recipe, there is no face burning or party exiting involved! To me, this is the fanciest sounding recipe: honey-poached pears. But in reality we’re just relying on a pot of boiling water, cinnamon sticks and honey to cook a very impressive breakfast. After the pears have poached, sprinkle them with a generous handful of granola and a dollop of yogurt. Fancy breakfast done.
SERVES 2–4 / V, GF
For the poached pears
2½ cups (600 ml) water
2 Bosc or Bartlett pears, skin peeled
⅓ cup (80 ml) honey, or maple syrup if vegan
1 cinnamon stick
1 thumb of fresh ginger, thinly sliced
For the granola
1 cup (80 g) rolled oats
1 cup (120 g) oat flour
¾ cup (110 g) pistachios, chopped
¼ cup (40 g) black sesame seeds
Pinch of sea salt
3 tbsp (45 ml) coconut oil
3 tbsp (45 ml) honey, or maple syrup if vegan
3 tbsp (35 g) coconut sugar
Zest of 1 large orange
1 tsp fresh ginger root, grated, or ginger powder
1 cup (235 ml) yogurt of your choice
To make the poached pears, bring the water to a boil in a medium saucepan. Lower the heat to a simmer and add in the peeled pears, honey, cinnamon stick and ginger. Cook the pears for about 20 minutes, or until soft. After they’ve cooked, drain them of the honey water and let them cool down for a few minutes before slicing lengthwise to remove the core.
To make the granola, start by preheating the oven to 350°F (177°C) and line a baking pan with
dishes like som tam (green papaya salad), noodle dishes and soups, roast pork and chicken and Chinese chicken rice. Stalls with charcoal barbecues sell satay, barbecued chicken and pork, Thai sausages, dried squid and grilled bananas. Steamer domes indicate red braised pork, Chinese dumplings and buns, pumpkin custard and sticky rice in banana leaves. Carts fitted with a large hotplate make mussels in batter, omelettes, pancakes and fried noodles. Woks mean spring rolls, won tons, fish cakes and dough sticks.
Ready-cooked food comes from vendors with prepared dishes such as fish curry in banana cups, pork-rind soups and lots of different puddings such as sticky rice. Drink carts sell fruit juices and sweets served over crushed ice. Other specialist carts sell fresh fruit, preserved fruit and seafood, including boiled clams or cockles. Pieces of roast pork are popular, sold with two types of dipping sauce. Corn on the cob is a relatively new introduction. Chinese-style soups are a favourite at lunchtime and insects of various types, such as deep-fried cockroaches with a chilli dipping sauce, are common in the northern part of Thailand.
THAWT MAN PLAA
Fried Fish Cakes with Green Beans
Fish cakes are just one of many delicious snacks sold as street food in Thailand. Batches are fried on request and served in a plastic bag, along with a bamboo skewer for eating them and a small bag of sauce for additional flavour.
450 g (1 lb) firm white fish fillets
1 tablespoon red curry paste or bought paste
1 tablespoon fish sauce
50 g (2 oz) snake (yard-long) beans, thinly sliced
5 makrut (kaffir) lime leaves, finely shredded
peanut oil, for deep-frying
sweet chilli sauce, to serve
cucumber relish, to serve
Remove any skin and bone from the fish and roughly chop the flesh. In a food processor or a blender, mince the fish fillets until smooth. Add the curry paste, fish sauce and egg, then blend briefly until smooth. Spoon into a bowl and mix in the beans and makrut lime leaves. Use wet hands to shape the fish paste into thin, flat cakes, about 5 cm (2 in) across, using about a tablespoon of mixture for each.
Heat 5 cm (2 in) oil in a wok or deep frying pan over medium heat. When the oil seems hot, drop a small piece of fish cake into it. If it sizzles immediately, the oil is ready.
Lower five or six of the fish cakes into the oil and deep-fry them until they are golden brown on both sides and very puffy. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels. Keep the cooked fish cakes warm while deep-frying the rest. Serve hot with sweet chilli sauce and cucumber relish.
For a variation, make up another batch of the fish mixture but leave out the curry paste. Cook as above and serve both types together.
Using wet hands makes the fish mixture less likely to stick to your hands and also easier to handle.
KHAO NIAW NA KUNG
Sticky Rice with Shrimp or Coconut Topping
2 garlic cloves, roughly chopped
4 coriander (cilantro) roots, cleaned
¼ teaspoon ground black pepper
1 tablespoon vegetable oil
200 g (7 oz) minced (ground) shrimp or very small raw prawns (shrimp)
25 g (1 oz) grated coconut
1 teaspoon fish sauce
3 tablespoons sugar
150 g (6 oz) grated coconut or desiccated coconut
150 g (6 oz) palm sugar (jaggery)
1 quantity of steamed sticky rice with coconut milk
3 makrut (kaffir) lime leaves, thinly sliced, for garnish
To make the shrimp topping, use a pestle and mortar to pound the garlic, coriander roots and pepper to a smooth paste. Alternatively, chop with a sharp knife until smooth. Heat the oil in a wok or frying pan and stir-fry the garlic mixture over medium heat until fragrant. Add the minced shrimp or prawns, coconut, fish sauce and sugar and stir-fry for 3–4 minutes, or until the minced shrimp is cooked. Taste, then adjust the seasoning if necessary. The flavour should be sweet and lightly salty.
To make the coconut topping, mix the coconut, sugar, 125 ml (4 fl oz/½ cup) water and a pinch of salt in a saucepan and stir over low heat until the sugar has dissolved. Do not let it thicken to a point where it will harden. Remove from the heat.
Serve by filling a small, wet bowl with the sticky rice and turning it out on a small plate. Top with shrimp or coconut topping and a sprinkle of lime leaves. You can use half of each topping if you like.
Fried Mussel Pancake
2 kg (4 lb 8 oz) small black mussels in their shells (yielding around 350 g/12 oz meat)
1 long red chilli, seeded and finely chopped
2½ tablespoons white vinegar
½ teaspoon sugar
50 g (2 oz) tapioca or plain (all-purpose) flour
40 g (1½ oz/1/3 cup) cornflour (cornstarch)
1 tablespoon fish sauce
1 teaspoon sugar