Breakfast by The Editors of Extra Crispy [epub | 55,73 Mb] ISBN: 0848757696

  • Full Title: Breakfast: The Most Important Book About the Best Meal of the Day
  • Autor: The Editors of Extra Crispy
  • Print Length: 256 pages
  • Publisher: Oxmoor House; – edition
  • Publication Date: October 23, 2018
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0848757696
  • ISBN-13: 978-0848757694
  • Download File Format | Size: epub | 55,73 Mb
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Breakfast is an exploration of everything about breakfast and brunch. This celebration of the most popular meal of the day offers engaging stories, essential how-tos, and killer breakfast recipes. Discover exciting new ingredients and the secrets to making Entenmann’s Cake Doughnuts and Taco Bell Crunchwraps at home, among many other dishes. Learn the origins of scrapple and how to brew barista-level drinks. Based on the popular website, this book—the perfect gift for anyone who loves all-day-breakfast—is packed with 100 photos, humorous illustrations, and amazing, craveable food.  


Editorial Reviews


“With this book, compiled, tested, and written by morning meal geniuses, you can break the code to beautiful sunrise meals. It is time to say no to brunch lines and oat bars. Get the crossword puzzle and a pencil, make some beautiful coffee or complex tea, put on some Archie Shepp, and craft a memorable meal that will change your morning life.” — Hugh Acheson 

"The recipes in this book will without a doubt get you out of bed." — FOOD & WINE

From the Author

Extra Crispy is the authority on breakfast, brunch, and every nook and cranny of morning culture. It is the leader of the growing global breakfast trend, showcasing celebrity chefs and emerging voices.




in Five Minutes a Day


Zoë François and Jeff Hertzberg, M.D.

Photographs by Sarah Kieffer and Zoë François

St. Martin’s Press New York

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About the Author

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To Sally, who shaped my view of the world through her love of art and great food


To Laura, Rachel, and Julia, the holiday bakers at my house



Mix Enough Dough for Several Loaves and Store It in the Refrigerator

It is so easy to have freshly baked breads and yeasted pastry when you want them, even during the holidays, with only minutes of active effort for each loaf. First, mix the ingredients from any of our recipes into a container all at once, then let them sit to rise. Now you are ready to shape and bake the bread, or you can refrigerate the dough and use it over the next several days—or even weeks, if you freeze it! Each recipe makes enough dough for multiple loaves. When you want fresh-baked bread, take a piece of the dough from the container and shape it into a loaf. Let it rest and then bake. Your house will smell like a celebration, and your family and friends will love you for it.


This is the book I’ve been waiting ten years to write. I’ve always managed to persuade Jeff to dedicate a substantial chapter in each of our books to the pastry side of bread, but in this book we get to focus exclusively on these beautiful, beloved recipes. I love all holidays and the foods we eat to celebrate them, but it’s the sweets that truly move me. Growing up, I had a grandmother who baked a dozen types of cookies at Christmas and another who served the largest, fluffiest challah during Rosh Hashanah. I was gifted with many holidays to celebrate, each one with a rich tradition of foods. Later in life, my husband’s family introduced me to a whole new world of flavors from Trinidad (which is a true melting pot of cuisines). I have traveled the world in search of food, pastry, and bread, and now I get to share that love on these pages. —Zoë

The best thing about holidays, or really any celebration, is gathering with family and community to share time and great food together. Every culture in the world has its traditional, festive holiday recipes, and we set out to find them. Some were shared by our readers—one asked how to adapt her grandmother’s Christmas stollen—or from people we met in the most unlikely places, like the airport limo driver in Denver who told us about Moroccan meloui. There is so much love and joy connected to these breads and the memories they evoke.

This is a book devoted to the sweeter side of bread—sweet-tasting, of course, but sweet for the soul, too. We’ve always struck a balance in our books between our love of carbs and sweets and our desire to maintain a healthy lifestyle. We are, after all, a pastry chef and a physician, writing books about bread, so there’s bound to be a push and pull. Creating a book about holiday breads that are mostly full of sugar and butter can pose a philosophical dilemma. Even Zoë, a pastry chef by training, is as conscientious about what she eats and as careful to bake healthfully for her family as Jeff, who’s a physician. And what we’ve discovered in our twelve-year collaboration comes down to this: moderation. Enjoy life, enjoy bread, enjoy sweets; just do it all in moderation, and even the most decadent treats can be part of a healthy lifestyle. We’ve included recipes that are made with whole grains and alternative sweeteners, but we don’t use artificial sweeteners or synthetic fats, since we don’t love the way they taste. If you have specific dietary needs, you may want to consider our book The New Healthy Bread in Five Minutes a Day, which uses whole grains and focuses on a healthy list of ingredients, or for non-wheat eaters, our Gluten-Free Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day. These books include delicious, indulgent holiday breads too. Most importantly, enjoy all the bread you bake!

How did a doctor and a pastry chef set out to write seven bread books together? This astonishing, crazy adventure—one that started as nothing more than a little project between friends, but has become the b
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nels cut from the cob

2 teaspoons fresh thyme leaves, minced

1 tablespoon unsalted butter

¼ cup crumbled feta cheese

Cilantro Oil

A small bunch of fresh cilantro

Extra virgin olive oil

Sherry vinegar

Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper

1. Heat the oven to 425°F.

2. Toss the peppers, tomatoes, halved shallots, and garlic cloves into a large bowl. Drizzle with a tablespoon or so of olive oil, season generously with salt and pepper and toss to coat. Place the vegetables in a single layer, skin side up, on a baking sheet with a rim.

3. Roast the vegetables for 45 to 60 minutes, until everything has started to take on a nice charred appearance. Check the shallots and garlic at 45 minutes—if they are soft, remove them from the pan and reserve; if not, leave them in the pan. When the vegetables are done, remove from the oven and let cool slightly.

4. Carefully peel the charred skin from the peppers and tomatoes. Squeeze the garlic cloves from their skins. Put the tomatoes, peppers, garlic, and halved shallots in a large saucepan, along with the smoked paprika, and chicken stock. Bring to a boil over high heat, then lower the heat to medium and cook, uncovered, for 15 minutes.

5. Working in batches, puree the soup in a blender and return to a clean saucepan. Taste and adjust the seasoning. Keep the soup warm over low heat.

6. To make the cilantro oil: Bring a medium saucepan of salted water to a boil. Toss in the cilantro leaves and blanch for about 30 seconds. Drain the cilantro and put it in a bowl of ice water to stop the cooking. Drain again and pat dry. Finely chop the leaves, then toss them in a small bowl with a few tablespoons of olive oil (enough to make a spoonable cilantro oil). Add a splash of sherry vinegar and salt and pepper to taste. Set aside.

7. Heat a medium sauté pan over a medium heat. Add a splash of olive oil and the minced shallot and cook until the shallot starts to take on some color, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the corn kernels, some salt and pepper, and the thyme and cook for 2 minutes, then toss in the butter; when it has melted, remove the corn from the heat and transfer to a bowl.

8. To serve, arrange a small pile of the corn in the center of each of 6 warmed soup bowls, pour the soup around, drizzle with some cilantro oil, and sprinkle with a little of the crumbled feta.


CSTORDY: “I served it chilled to rave reviews.”

MELISSAV: “I know a dish is a keeper when my husband tells me I need to make it for his parents when they come for a visit. He wasn’t more than two bites in when he uttered those very words.”


OUI, CHEF: “My first thought was to grate a little ricotta salata over the top, but the feta is a nice stand-in.”

ZYNCOOKS: “I skipped a few steps in preparing the cilantro oil and simply simmered a bunch of cilantro in about ½ cup olive oil, then let it sit for a few hours. It was great.”


Roasted Radish and Potato Salad with Black Mustard and Cumin Seeds

By gingerroot / Serves 2 or 3

WHO: gingerroot is an art educator and mother of two who lives in Honolulu. She focuses on “eating locally, cooking globally.” See her Chèvre Devils and Late-Night Coffee-Brined Chicken.

WHAT: Tender caramelized root vegetables swathed in a silky, fragrant dressing of yogurt, scallions, toasted cumin and mustard seeds (gingerroot was inspired by a radish raita recipe).

HOW: The radishes are roasted to soften their bite and make them mellow; they retain a slight bitterness that really complements the sweetness of the roasted potatoes.

WHY WE LOVE IT: Fresh lemon juice lifts the whole salad’s brightness. This would make a great potluck dish.

1 large Yukon Gold potato, scrubbed and cut into bite-size pieces

Extra virgin olive oil

Coarse sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

8 to 10 radishes, preferably a variety of sizes and types (I used Easter Egg and French Breakfast radishes), trimmed

½ teaspoon black mustard seeds

½ teaspoon cumin seeds

2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice

½ teaspoon sugar

2 tablespoons whole milk yogurt

2 tablespoons thinly sliced scallions

1. Heat the oven to 400°F.

2. In a medium bowl, combine the potatoes with a glug or two of olive oil, a good sprinkling of sea salt, and a few grinds of black pepper, tossing to coat evenly. Spread the potatoes in a single layer on a foil-lined baking sheet and roast for 10 minutes (set the bowl aside).

3. Meanwhile, halve or cut any large radishes into wedges; leave smaller ones whole. Combine the radishes with another glug or two of olive oil and some salt and pepper in the same bowl that you tossed the potatoes in; mix well to coat evenly.

4. Using a wooden spatula or spoon, gently push the potatoes around, being careful to keep the skins as intact as possibl
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lunchroom duty and view it as the most chaotic moment of their day—in fact, the New York City teachers’ union recently won the right to stay outside the lunchroom. They now drop their students off at the cafeteria door on their way to find more restful lunchtime locations for themselves.

The noise and activity levels are not the only unpalatable aspects of lunchroom dining. A full 78 percent of the schools in America do not actually meet the USDA’s nutritional guidelines, which is no surprise considering the fact that schools keep the cost of lunch between $1 and $1.50 per child. A parent in Colorado tells us that her child’s school insists that nachos meet the dietary requirements for a main course. Horrified, she exclaimed, “It’s not even real cheese!” The mother of an elementary student in Marstons Mills, Massachusetts, was appalled to learn that even apple slices aren’t a nutritionally sound choice in her daughter’s school—to her horror, they’re topped with blue sugar sprinkles. Most kids do not even like the foods that are being served. A recent survey of school children in northern Minnesota revealed the food is so abysmal that not even old standby favorites like pizza and macaroni and cheese were given high marks. It’s no wonder that kids are choosing fast foods, which are chemically engineered in many cases to be better tasting, over regular school lunch menu items. Kids today are bombarded with food advertising that is reinforced by the careful placement of fast-food chains in strip malls near schools and even on public school campuses. The big chains like McDonald’s have been aggressively and specifically targeting children for decades. When Ray Kroc first started expanding the McDonald’s chain, he would hop in a Cessna and fly around looking for prime real estate as close to schools as possible. Today they use satellite technology to locate the same type of properties. These companies are literally stalking our children. They’ve even found ways to get inside schools and be part of the public school lunch menus. A mother from Aurora, Colorado, told us that there is one Taco Bell and one Pizza Hut option available on every menu in her six-year-old son’s lunchroom. She was told that the fast-food program originally started as a “safety measure” to keep the high school and middle school students on school grounds because in spite of the fact that they had a closed campus, kids were crossing busy streets to get to fast-food restaurants near their schools. She thought that “the fast-food thing just trickled down to the elementary program.” Of course, the reality is that those schools were, and are, making money off million-dollar multiyear contracts with fast-food companies.

School lunch menus have undergone some changes in recent years and are marginally improved, but nearly all our schools continue to operate under the misguided notion that kids actually prefer to eat frozen, processed, fried, and sugary foods. Because most parents don’t have time to spend in the kitchen the way the parents of generations past once did, the lunch lessons children are getting in school are the primary guideposts available to them. Poor in-school health and nutrition education is causing children, and by extension their families, to make bad food choices that are translating directly into big health problems. It is up to us, the consuming public, to not only get fast food out of our public schools, but to improve the quality of school lunches, from the nutritional content all the way to the atmosphere in our cafeterias. The money to fund school lunches comes directly out of our pockets and we need to set an example for our children that will keep them healthy now and help them to make better food choices in their adult lives. Everything we consume becomes part of us. Our food provides us with nourishment. It sustains us. It may also be our ultimate undoing. We literally are what we eat—good and bad. Changing the way we feed our children is not a luxury: It’s an imperative. Concerned, informed, and involved parents and caregivers are the first line of defense.

The Path to Change

In spite of the ever increasing encroachment of fast food in the public school system, some schools and school districts have tried to change the way school meals are prepared, served, and eaten, but many have found the path toward change overwhelming. California’s Berkeley High School made some recent strides toward creating an organic food court after the cafeteria there had been made unusable by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. In 2001 the school reached out to local restaurateurs, such as the famed Alice Waters, who agreed to bring organic lunches to the school every day. Unfortunately, the program was poorly planned and inadequately executed. Only about 250 of the 3,000 students on campus ever ate in the food court. The vast majority of stud
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thin, 2- to 3-inch-long chilies have a slightly sweet flavor and a heat ranging from medium to medium-hot. They are most often sold pickled, in jars, and can be found in the condiment aisle of most supermarkets.

Polenta Popular in Northern Italy and Latin America, polenta is coarsely ground yellow cornmeal, which is cooked into a porridgelike consistency with broth or water. Regular and instant polenta are both available in many supermarkets, in the international or specialty foods aisle. Coarse-ground yellow cornmeal can be substituted for regular polenta.

Quinoa An ancient whole grain (technically not a true cereal grain) indigenous to South America, originally used by the Incas, quinoa (pronounced KEEN-wah) is unique among grains as it contains essential amino acids that make it a complete protein. It can be found in either the specialty foods aisle or among the rice and other grains in many large supermarkets. For best results, rinse well under cold water before cooking to remove any bitter-tasting resin, or saponin.

Radicchio A popular Italian salad green, radicchio is a red-leaf member of the chicory family, possessing firm yet tender leaves with a slightly bitter flavor. Most commonly eaten raw in salads, it may also be cooked by grilling, sautéing, baking, or braising. Radicchio is available year-round, with a peak season from midwinter to early spring. Choose heads that have crisp, full-colored leaves with no sign of browning. Store in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for up to one week.

Rice Arborio rice is rounded, medium-grain rice from Italy that is both firm and creamy when cooked. It is the traditional rice in risotto. Basmati rice is fragrant, long-grain rice from Pakistan and India characterized by a nutty flavor and pop cornlike aroma. Jasmine rice is delicately scented, softly textured, long-grain rice from Thailand, frequently used in Southeast Asian cuisine.

Tahini Tahini, or sesame tahini, is a thick, Middle Eastern paste made of ground raw (sometimes roasted) sesame seeds; it is an essential ingredient in authentic hummus. Tahini can be found in most large supermarkets in the international or specialty foods aisle, as well as the condiment and salad dressing section.

Salt, coarse A larger grained sea salt crystal, which is derived directly from a living ocean or sea. Typically unrefined, it has a bright, pure, clean flavor, and contains traces of other minerals, including iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and iodine.

Sesame oil, toasted (or dark) An Asian variety of sesame oil with a dark color and an intense, nutty flavor and aroma. Valued as a condiment, it is used sparingly in cooking. Toasted, or dark, sesame oil can be found in the international aisle or condiment and salad dressing section of many large supermarkets. For best results, select those brands consisting only of pure, or 100 percent, sesame oil.

Tamari sauce A Japanese soy sauce that is fermented from one to three years, and has a mellow, intense flavor. Unlike other varieties of soy sauce, which contain wheat, traditional tamari sauce is typically wheat-free; however, those with wheat allergies or gluten intolerance should check the label carefully, as some brands may contain wheat.

Thai curry paste Thai curry paste comes in both red and green forms. Thai red curry paste is a hot-and-spicy concentrated mixture of dried red chilies and seasoned spices, which typically consist of onion, garlic, galangal, lemon grass, kafir lime zest, cilantro root, peppercorn, and salt. Thai green curry paste is made with green chilies and, as a result, is slightly milder; otherwise, it contains the same ingredients as the red variety. Both can be found in the international aisle or condiment section of many large supermarkets.

Tomatoes, sun-dried Sun-dried tomatoes are chewy, intensely flavored, dark red tomatoes that have been dried in the sun or by artificial methods. They are either packed in oil or dry-packed. The dry-packed type should be rehydrated in water or other liquid before use. Both types are available in most large supermarkets: the dry-packed variety can sometimes be found in the produce section, around the dried wild mushrooms, while the oil-packed variety can usually be located in the condiment section, near the marinated artichokes.

Vinegars Balsamic vinegar is a mellow Italian vinegar, made from white Trebbiano grape juice. It gets its dark color and pungent sweetness from aging in barrels, made of various woods and in graduating sizes, over a period of years. Rice vinegar is made from fermented rice; Japanese rice vinegar is almost colorless and is milder than most Western vinegars. It comes in two types: natural (or plain) and seasoned. Both can be found in either the international aisle or the condiment and salad dressing section of most large supermarkets.

Wheat germ Derived from the heart of the wheat berry, wheat ger
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the pot until it does not stick to the sides. Oil droplets will start forming on the surface of the dough, and the pot will have a thick skin on the bottom. Stick a spoon in the dough. If it stays upright, the dough is ready.

Scrape the dough into a large bowl. With your spatula, add the whisked eggs one at a time. Incorporate well after each addition. Once the dough has a glossy appearance and has a pipeable consistency, stop adding the eggs.

Transfer the dough into a piping bag. You do not need a tip. On the prepared baking sheets, pipe the dough into even rows about 5 inches long and about 1 1/2 inches wide. Make sure the rows are a few inches apart to allow the dough room to puff up. Bake the dough in the preheated oven for 30-40 minutes. Do not open the oven for the first 25 minutes. Ensure the dough puffs up appropriately by turning the oven light on.

Once the pastries are golden brown and puffed up, remove them from the oven. Prick them with a toothpick to release steam, and let them cool completely.

Once cooled, cut a small slit on one end of the pastry. With the cream in a pastry bag, pipe the cream into the éclair to fill it evenly. Dip the tops of the éclairs into melted chocolate, and serve them immediately.

You may store them in a container in the fridge for up to 2 days.

Everything Bagel

1 teaspoon of white sugar

3/4 cup warm water

2 1/2 teaspoons of active, dry yeast

3 large eggs

2 tablespoons of canola oil

3 1/2 cups of all-purpose flour

3 tablespoons of white sugar

1 3/4 teaspoons of sea salt

4 liters of water

1/2 cup of dried onion flakes

1 1/2 tablespoons of garlic powder

2 tablespoons of coarse salt

2 tablespoons of black sesame seeds

2 tablespoons of poppy seeds

2 eggs (for egg wash)


In a large bowl attached to your stand mixer, use the mixer to stir the first amount (1 teaspoon) of sugar and (3/4 cup) water together. Stop the mixer and sprinkle the yeast on top. After 10 minutes, stir mixture together until the yeast dissolves.

Add the eggs and oil to the mixture, and whisk them together. Add 1 cup of flour to the mixture and mix. Add 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 3/4 teaspoons of salt, and the garlic powder to the mixture. Mix it for 2 minutes.

Work in enough of the remaining flour to make a soft dough. Knead the dough in your stand mixer for 5 minutes or until it is smooth and elastic in appearance.

Remove the dough and grease the bowl. Place dough back in the bowl, and cover it with plastic wrap and a tea towel. Place the dough in a warm place for 1 1/2 hours or until it has doubled in size.

Once doubled, punch the dough down and divide it into 10 equal pieces. Roll each piece into a rope and then bring the ends together, overlap the ends slightly, and pinch them together to seal them.

Cover the bagels with a slightly damp towel and place them in the oven with the light on. Allow them to rest for 15 minutes.

Take the bagels out and preheat the oven to 400°F.

Pour the 4 liters of water into a large stock pot. Add the remaining sugar and stir. Bring the liquid to a boil. Drop each bagel into the water with no more than 3 in the pot at a time, and cook them for 1 minute on each side. Remove them from the water and place them on a parchment-lined baking sheet.

In a medium-sized bowl, add the dry onion flakes, coarse salt, black sesame seeds, and poppy seeds. Mix until everything is evenly distributed. Brush the tops of the bagels with an egg wash (2 whisked eggs with 2 tablespoons of water). Sprinkle the bagels with the desired amount of topping.

Bake the bagels in the oven for 20-25 minutes or until they are golden brown. Break one open in the center. If doughy, continue cooking.

Serve the bagels warm and toasted with cream cheese or any other topping you wish!

Meringue Cookies With Chocolate Swirls

6 large eggs, whites only

1 1/2 cups of white sugar

4 tablespoons of powdered sugar

2 tablespoons of pure vanilla extract

1 teaspoon of white vinegar

1 cup of melted dark chocolate or melted milk chocolate


Preheat the oven to 270°F.

Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.

Place your egg whites into a large bowl. With a hand mixer, beat them until they form stiff peaks and don’t slide out of the bowl when you tip it upside down.

With the hand mixer set to a medium speed, gradually add in both the white sugar and the powdered sugar. Once the sugars are beat in, add the vanilla and vinegar. Turn the speed up to medium-high and beat until you can no longer feel the grains of sugar when you rub the mixture together with your fingers. You want the meringue to feel stiff and look glossy.

Melt the chocolate and allow it to cool slightly. With a spoon, drizzle the chocolate over the meringue. Using a large spoon, remove some of the meringue and place it on the parchment paper. Continue this until th
ld, couples nailed their announcements to the church door rather than have their banns read aloud. Puritans, who did not hold with flashiness, held civil proceedings, with the town magistrate regulating the waiting period after a bann.16

In present-day Great Britain, the Church of England still requires

marriage banns, although there is a movement to modernize the practice, and a “common license” offers a civil alternative. A mandatory waiting period after a trip to the courthouse to get a marriage license is a version of the same practice in America. Engagement announcements in modern

newspapers or social media serve a similar function.


British penny weddings, traced to sixteenth-century Scotland, were an early form of contributory celebration, in which guests paid admission to attend bridal feasts. Profits from the “bride ale” sold at the festivities helped newlyweds set up a home.17 These gatherings got so rowdy and so large (and profitable) that English law eventually regulated the amount of beer that could be brewed and limited the number of attendees.18 English wedding guests often paid a small fee (a penny), brought food, or paid admission as part of attending receptions, and often the entire town, and

A Brief History of Wedding Feasts 11

even strangers, showed up. Villagers were alerted to the occasion by the placement of a bush outside the party site or sometimes a branch over the door of a house where the gathering was to be held. The festivities, which featured prizes, games, and athletics, as well as enthusiastic drinking and dancing, often went on for days.

Jacklyn Geller, in Here Comes the Bride, writes that social climbers noted that the elite had guest lists and carefully plotted itineraries, while the lower classes hosted boisterous, improvised marathons of revelry.

A striving middle class, increasing in number and wishing to mimic

high society, began to appropriate the staid wedding repast, which had become a standard by the 1800s.19 Those with “new money” aimed

to display their wealth, and the “servant problem” made it difficult to host large events at home. The increased availability of palatial banquet rooms, fancy catering halls, and restaurants provided an opportunity for the affluent to brandish their wealth; these venues also provided a target to which others could aspire.20


A quiet wedding took place yesterday morning at 11 o’clock

at the Church of the Heavenly Rest, Fifth-avenue and

Forty-fifth street, the contracting parties being Miss Sarah

Josephine Rieck, daughter of Mr. J. C. Rieck, of No. 23 East

Sixty-fifth street, and Mr. Francis Eugene Grant. After the

ceremony an informal reception was given to the relatives and

intimate friends of the bride and groom at the residence of

the bride’s parents.

—“Fashionable Weddings,” New York Times,

November 23, 1881

The above is a typical description of an Eastern “society” wedding of the 1880s (if you weren’t “society,” you weren’t making the Times). The columnist later noted that there were no bridesmaids and no best man.

The bride’s embroidered dress, her pearls and lace, the corsage, the veil, and her hair ornaments were described in detail, followed by a list of who exactly attended the wedding.21

The matrimonial model favored by the elite was a church wedding

followed by a dignified “collation” (light meal) at the bride’s family home.

Particularly in the Victorian era, care was taken to mark gatherings as

12 Chapter 1

“quiet” and “intimate,” lest they be judged vulgar. Tasteful marriage announcements were but one way to sort the social classes, clearly delineating where the participants stood on the social ladder—and where they

lived, home address and all.

The forced gentility of Victorian life was grappling with the industrialization that threatened standards of culture. As telephones and electric light reshaped households, industry was producing standardized goods, which in turn begat a desire for yet more goods. Even a simple wedding like the one just described called for multiple commercial transactions.

Researcher Barbara Penner asserts that as early as the 1850s, weddings were increasingly “choreographed,” and merchants (florists, engravers, jewelers, and seamstresses, for a start) were necessary for the affluent to host even the most restrained of society weddings. Household staff and family members could sew or prepare for a party, but they could not engrave invitations or create elaborate floral displays. Etiquette writers, hitting their stride in producing manuals for navigating the changing social terrain, judged that the sanctity of marriage should be free of the indignities of advertising and commerce. Clergy in particular backed humble nuptial celebrations, contending that grandiosity created an excitemen


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