Cooking with Scraps by Lindsay-Jean Hard [epub | 15,53 Mb] ISBN: 0761193030

  • Full Title: Cooking with Scraps: Turn Your Peels, Cores, Rinds, and Stems into Delicious Meals
  • Autor: Lindsay-Jean Hard
  • Print Length: 216 pages
  • Publisher: Workman Publishing Company
  • Publication Date: October 30, 2018
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0761193030
  • ISBN-13: 978-0761193036
  • Download File Format | Size: epub | 15,53 Mb
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“A whole new way to celebrate ingredients that have long been wasted. Lindsay-Jean is a master of efficiency and we’re inspired to follow her lead!” 
—Amanda Hesser and Merrill Stubbs, cofounders of Food52 


In 85 innovative recipes, Lindsay-Jean Hard—who writes the “Cooking with Scraps” column for Food52—shows just how delicious and surprising the all-too-often-discarded parts of food can be, transforming what might be considered trash into culinary treasure. 
Here’s how to put those seeds, stems, tops, rinds to good use for more delicious (and more frugal) cooking: Carrot greens—bright, fresh, and packed with flavor—make a zesty pesto. Water from canned beans behaves just like egg whites, perfect for vegan mayonnaise that even non-vegans will love. And serve broccoli stems olive-oil poached on lemony ricotta toast. It’s pure food genius, all the while critically reducing waste one dish at a time.

“I love this book because the recipes matter…show[ing] us how to utilize the whole plant, to the betterment of our palate, our pocketbook, and our place.” —Eugenia Bone, author of The Kitchen Ecosystem 

“Packed with smart, approachable recipes for beautiful food made with ingredients that you used to throw in the compost bin!” —Cara Mangini, author of The Vegetable Butcher
 

 

Editorial Reviews

Review

“Clever recipes” —New York Times

“Highly recommended for readers interested in kitchen frugality and using all produce parts.” —Library Journal

“Hard’s plainspoken style and culinary ingenuity is sure to win over even the most profligate of home cooks, as this is far from a collection of novelties. Those who take the time to set aside their scraps are guaranteed to find a few new tricks here.” —Publishers Weekly

“This isn’t a cookbook about thrifty uses for scraps; it’s about a whole new way to celebrate ingredients that have long been wasted. Lindsay-Jean is a master of efficiency and we’re inspired to follow her lead!” —Amanda Hesser and Merrill Stubbs, co-founders of Food52

“I love this book not only because the recipes are delightful and easy, but because they matter. Cooking with Scraps shows us how to utilize the whole plant, to the betterment of our palate, our pocketbook, and our place. You can’t go wrong with a cookbook this right.” —Eugenia Bone, author of The Kitchen Ecosystem

About the Author

Lindsay-Jean Hard received her Master's in Urban Planning from the University of Michigan. Her education and passion for sustainability went on to inform and inspire her work in the garden, home, and community. The seeds of this book were planted in her Food52 column of the same name. Today she works to share her passion for great food and great communities as a marketer at Zingerman's Bakehouse. She lives, writes, loves, and creates in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
 
 

 

Keywords

h ist der Stoff, aus dem die Würste sind. Die Formel versteht jeder: Je wertvoller dieser Rohstoff, desto leckerer und gesünder die Wurst.

GUTEN APPETIT – DANKE FLEISCHFALLS!

Es gibt viele Gründe für den Fleischverzehr

Warum sollen Sie eigentlich Fleisch essen? Und warum schmeckt es Ihnen so gut? Welche Inhaltsstoffe davon braucht Ihr Organismus – und auf welche kann er verzichten? Da selbst hergestellte Würste zu 95 Prozent aus einem Fleisch-Speck-Gemisch bestehen, lohnt sich ein kleiner Ausflug in das Reich der «Fleischeslust».

Da liegt es vor Ihnen, ein Steak ganz nach Ihrem Geschmack. Von außen leicht gebräunt, von innen saftig und zart. Wie dieser Leckerbissen auf Ihrer Zunge zergeht, können Sie sich vorstellen. Aber wissen Sie auch, was Sie da zu sich nehmen? Sehen Sie ruhig genauer hin: Grundsätzlich besteht Fleisch zu 15 bis 20 Prozent aus Eiweiß (Protein) und bis zu 45 Prozent aus Fett. Etwa ein Prozent Vitamine, Kohlenhydrate und organische Säuren machen den kostbaren Nährstoffmix komplett.

Powersnack dank Aminosäuren

Das Nahrungsmittel Fleisch ist heute nicht ganz unumstritten. Weil manches Fleisch lieblos auf Masse produziert wird. Oder unter gesundheitsschädigenden Bedingungen auf den Markt geworfen. Kurz: Fleisch von minderer Qualität macht aus Ihrer Wurst tatsächlich keine Gaumenfreude. Der bewusste Genuss von hochqualitativem Fleisch gehört aber zu einer abwechslungsreichen, gesunden Ernährung unbedingt dazu.

Vor allem aufgrund der lebensnotwendigen Inhaltsstoffe wird Fleisch für Ihren Organismus zum echten Powersnack. Das tierische Eiweiß kommt dem menschlichen sehr nahe. Wir verwerten es besonders schnell. Dabei entsteht pure Energie, denn Protein besteht hauptsächlich aus wertvollen, essenziellen Aminosäuren. Die wiederum sind Grundbausteine für jede einzelne Zelle Ihres Körpers. Einen Teil davon produziert er selbst, beim Rest freut er sich über Ihre Hilfe: indem Sie Fleisch essen. Die Ernährungswissenschaft empfiehlt täglich ein Gramm Eiweiß pro Kilogramm Körpergewicht, und dieses sollte zur Hälfte aus tierischem Eiweiß bestehen.

So wertvoll ist Ihr Steak

Beim Fleischgenuss erhalten Sie zusätzlich lebensnotwendige anorganische Nährstoffe, die Mineralstoffe. Vorwiegend Natrium, Kalium, Kalzium, Phosphor und Eisen. Da werfen Sie lange Nahrungsergänzungsmittel ein, ehe Sie diesen Vitalcocktail erreichen. Das gilt ebenso für die Vitamine, hauptsächlich aus der B-Familie. Vitamin B 12 ist wichtig für Zellteilung, Blutbildung und Ihr Nervensystem. Der Organismus bezieht es ausschließlich aus tierischen Produkten. Pflanzenprodukte sehen hier eher welk aus. Mit 100 Gramm Muskelfleisch kann Ihr Bedarf an den einzelnen B-Vitaminen zwischen 20 und 100 Prozent gedeckt werden. Eine Sonderstellung bezüglich des Vitamingehaltes nimmt übrigens die Leber ein, die neben den B-Vitaminen außerdem einen hohen Gehalt an Vitamin A aufweist.

Keine Angst vor der richtigen Menge Fett

Schließlich gibt es noch einen Inhaltsstoff, der heutzutage unter einem schlechten Ruf leidet: Fett. Urteilen Sie nicht zu vorschnell. Das richtige Quantum Fett im Fleisch macht die Wurst zart und rundet sie geschmacklich ab. Zum Glück haben Sie es jetzt selbst in der Hand, den Fettgehalt Ihrer Wurst nach Altmeister-Art zu bestimmen. Bei allen Gedanken an Ihre Figur und Ihre Gesundheit sollten Sie nicht vergessen, dass auch Fett Ihrem Organismus Energie spendet. Solange Sie nicht damit übertreiben. Je fettiger die Wurst, desto schwerer liegt sie nämlich im Magen. Andere Faktoren, wie das Alter des Tieres oder der Reifezustand des Fleisches, spielen bei der Verträglichkeit ebenso eine Rolle. Informieren Sie sich daher, von welchem Tier das Fleisch zum Wursten stammt. Auf den folgenden Seiten erhalten Sie einen praxisnahen Einblick in die fleischige Welt von Rind, Schwein und Co. Damit Ihnen niemand einen Ochs für eine Kuh vormacht.

«Fleisch und Wurst zählen zu den wichtigsten Eisenquellen für alle, die sich nicht vegetarisch ernähren.»

WISSEN, WO ES HERKOMMT – WARENKUNDE FLEISCH

So erkennen Sie Qualität an wenigen Merkmalen

Sehen Sie sich bei Ihrem nächsten Spaziergang auf dem Land mal um. Wie wird das Vieh hier gehalten? Die Qualität des Fleisches hängt davon ab. Auch Alter, Geschlecht, Körperbau, Gesundheits- und Nährzustand des Tieres haben großen Einfluss. Wagen Sie daher ruhig eine kleine «Fleischbeschau».

RUND UMS RIND

Glückliche Wurst kommt von glücklichen Rindern. Für viele in diesem Buch beschriebene Rezepte können Sie deshalb ihr Fleisch verwenden. Was wir allgemein unter «Rindfleisch» verstehen, ist genauer gesagt das Muskelfleisch des Hausrindes. Bereits vor 250.000 Jahren weidete sein stolzer Vorfahr, der Auerochse, auf den einsamen Wiesen Mitteleuropas. Durch gezielte Züchtung entstanden aus diesem «Urvieh» die heutigen Rinderarten. Ihr Fleisch gehört zu den beliebtesten Sorten der deutsche
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t and old world style to make it the right restaurant for any occasion.

On any given night, a survey of the room will show a large group celebrating a special birthday; a couple sharing a meal; a boisterous family with kids enjoying a simple supper because they were too busy to cook at home that night; and other combinations of folks that you might find at any restaurant.

At Carrabba’s, we are both an extraordinary dining experience and your favorite neighborhood restaurant. This may sound like a case of dual personality, but it isn’t. We want to make everyone who walks into the restaurant feel happy. This commitment to hospitality has been in place since the day we opened our doors. And it all goes back to one thing: delicious Italian food, cooked from the heart.

Almost thirty years ago, two men, a restaurateur and his nephew, both well versed in Italian cooking at both the home and professional levels, opened a small family restaurant in Texas. This book represents the amazing growth and success of those unassuming beginnings.

“My grandmothers took pride in their food,” says founder Johnny Carrabba. “We learned from them and so it’s the same thing here. We try to impress and to satisfy everyone who walks in the door. That is what we mean by cooking from the heart.”

Johnny’s uncle, founder Damian Mandola, echoes his nephew’s thoughts. “Simplicity is important, as is sticking with classic ingredients and using a light hand. What brings customers back to Carrabba’s is that the tomato sauce tastes like tomatoes; it’s just delicious food that showcases fresh ingredients.”

These words are about how a single restaurant grew into a collection of neighborhood restaurants where diners bask in warm Italian hospitality and savor fresh, authentic meals. The Carrabba’s culture of excellence is based on four generations of family traditions. Our goal is to serve exceptional food in a lively, casual setting where planning and training ensures that everything runs like a beautiful, well-made clock. We hope this book is a memento of the good times you’ve had as our guest, and inspires you to try your hand at some of our heirloom recipes at home.

THE CARRABBA’S CULTURE

Carrabba’s Italian Grill began as the dream of two young men who were in love with food. At first, the original Carrabba’s served only the Sicilian food of Damian and Johnny’s family kitchens. But as the founders traveled, the menu expanded to include specialties of Calabria, Tuscany, the Piedmont, and Lombardy. Damian says, “As long as it’s Italian, we try it.”

The Mandola-Carrabba family is a close-knit one with a family tree that traces its way back to Rosa Testa, who arrived in Louisiana from Sicily not knowing a word of English. Family legend says she taught herself English from the local newspaper. Arguably, Carrabba’s is her legacy. There are reminders of the family’s love of home-style Italian cooking across the menu:

Mama Mandola’s Sicilian Chicken Soup; Pasta Weesie (named for Johnny’s sister Mary Louise); Pollo Rosa Maria (named for Johnny’s mother); and of course, Pasta Carrabba.

Although she might not recognize them as the recipes she jotted down decades ago, many of Mama Mandola’s dishes—Grace Mandola, Damian’s mother and Johnny’s grandmother—are still used at Carrabba’s. Their integrity is never compromised.

Carrabba’s operates on the essential principles of authenticity, hospitality, quality, and fun. The dishes are authentic, true to their Italian heritage and American sensibilities; the hospitality is generous and heartfelt; the food is of the highest quality, as are the surroundings and ambiance; and finally, there is an affectionate sense of fun at every Carrabba’s. Our staff (we call them Carrabbamicos, a play on amico, Italian for friend) is ready to laugh with the customers and exhibit an easy-going attitude that makes dining there relaxing and rewarding. We promise to give you our best every time—coming close is not good enough.

But while fun is an important ingredient in the Carrabba’s “recipe,” so is our commitment to serious food and serious beverage. With the latter, our dedication to excellence does not stop in the kitchen, it extends to the bar. If you desire some guidance, your Carrabbamico will help you select the perfect wine for your meal. We will pour you a fine glass of wine or mix you the best martini you ever had. It’s our pleasure. Salute!

IT’S ALL ABOUT THE FOOD

Carrabba’s heart beats in our open kitchen. Here, you can see our respected cooks prepare your meal from scratch. It’s a busy place—to say the least—and the hustle and bustle provides a liveliness that permeates throughout the entire restaurant, not unlike the warm glow from the wood-burning oven. We love the fact that the bustling kitchen shows us at work—we have nothing to hide, but plenty to show
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stency with a food processor, blender, or food mill.

ROUILLE: A garnish for fish soups and stews made of chiles, garlic, and oil (see page 44).

ROUX: A mixture of flour and fat cooked over low heat. Used to thicken soups and sauces.

RUSSET: A potato low in moisture and high in starch that is good for cooking. Also called Idaho potato.

SAUTÉ: To cook food in a small amount of fat on top of the stove for a short period of time, stirring often.

SHALLOT: A large, garlic-shaped member of the onion family with a mild onion flavor. Less pungent than garlic.

SKIN: To remove skin from poultry or fish.

SLICE: To cut into flat pieces.

STIR: To mix ingredients in a circular motion.

VELOUTÉ SAUCE: A stock-based white sauce thickened with a roux.

WHISK: To stir ingredients together with a wire whip to blend.

ZEST: The outermost skin layer of citrus fruits (usually lemons or oranges), which is removed with the aid of a citrus zester, paring knife, or vegetable peeler.

SOUPS & STEWS: A PRIMER { 17 }

26523_001-066 10/16/04 10:09 AM Page 18

COOKING TIPS FOR MAKING AND SERVING

SOUPS & STEWS

Read the recipe carefully. Shop for all needed ingredients.

Assemble all ingredients and equipment before starting.

Do the preparation work (chopping, grating, opening cans, and so on) ahead of time.

Simmer soups and stews over medium-low or low heat, depending on the stove. Do not boil, just keep them at a gentle ripple. Gas stoves are hotter and faster than electric ones.

Add vegetables that require a short cooking time (mushrooms, green beans, summer squash, spinach, and so on) at the end of the cooking period to prevent overcooking.

Add fresh herbs at the end of the cooking time. They lose their flavor and intensity when cooked for a long period of time. Most recipes call for dried herbs or a combination of fresh and dried.

Crush dried herbs between your fingers to release flavor.

Use sea salt or kosher salt for more intense flavor (see page 26).

Rinse frozen vegetables under hot water before measuring.

Chop whole canned tomatoes in the can with stainless steel scissors.

Trim excess skin and fat from chicken with stainless steel kitchen scissors.

Use a food processor to chop vegetables if uniform pieces for visual purposes are not required. Cut vegetables in large, uniform pieces before placing them in the food processor.

{ 18 } THE BIG BOOK OF SOUPS & STEWS

26523_001-066 10/16/04 10:09 AM Page 19

Use a food processor or blender to make purées to thicken some soups. Purée 1 cup vegetables with a small amount of broth, then blend with the remaining soup in the pan.

Thicken stews by adding a paste of flour, cornstarch, or arrowroot blended with water to the liquid. Grains, legumes, and tapioca are also used to thicken soups and stews.

Use a chilled stainless steel bowl to make cold soups.

Serve hot soups in warmed bowls and cold soups in chilled bowls.

(To warm bowls, place in a warm oven for 30 minutes, or pour hot water into the bowls and let them stand for 10 minutes. To chill bowls, place in the freezer for 1 hour.)

Soups can be served in tureens; large, interesting heatproof bowls; or, for a special occasion, a hollowed-out pumpkin or a hollowed-out round loaf of peasant bread. To prepare a loaf of bread to use as a container for soup, slice off the top quarter. Hollow out the loaf, leaving about 3/4 inch around the edge, being careful not to cut through the bottom. Brush the insides and top with vegetable or olive oil. Bake at 350°F for 10 minutes. Ladle the soup into the bread container and serve immediately. Individual loaves can also be used.

Store soups and stews, covered, in the refrigerator for up to 3 or 4 days. (Fish soups do not store well.) Leave the fat layer that accumulates on top until ready to serve (it seals the soup), or freeze in tightly covered containers for 1 to 2 months.

Reheat soups or stews that have been made ahead over low heat, stirring constantly and adding more liquid if necessary. If using a microwave oven, watch carefully and do not overcook.

SOUPS & STEWS: A PRIMER { 19 }

26523_001-066 10/16/04 10:09 AM Page 20

HELPFUL EQUIPMENT

Large stockpot for making stock. The high sides help the stock circulate for even cooking and reduce evaporation.

Large, stainless steel (nonreactive) or enamel-lined soup pot, with a heavy bottom. Do not use aluminum or iron because tomato products react to these materials.

Dutch oven. A large, heavy, flameproof pot with a lid, made of cast iron, enamel-lined cast iron, or stainless steel. It retains heat and can be used for browning, sautéing, stewing, braising, or baking.

Perfect for making stews and soups.

Skimmer. A stainless steel tool with a fine mesh used to skim off foam that rises to the top.

Three or four good knives. A stainless steel chef ’s knife for chopping, a utility or boning knife, a pari
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hard to juice. I groaned as I got out of bed, dressed, put my boots on and stumbled, bleary-eyed, into the grey, pre-dawn orchard. It was late March so the trees were absolutely laden with dew-covered fruit. I picked as many as I could carry and couldn’t help but bite into one of the pears. To this day I’ve never tasted a piece of fruit that can come close to that pear. I hadn’t eaten fruit straight off the tree before and after that first taste I was hooked. I made my way to the farmhouse where Giles had prepared a steaming pot of porridge on the wood-fired stove, using milk from his neighbour’s dairy. To top it all off, Giles pulled out of the oven a loaf of freshly baked bread that we would enjoy for lunch with veggies from the garden. My head was spinning – all this amazing, simple food was knocking my socks off. In one morning my whole perception of food and what it could be had changed. I had just witnessed the good life and I was determined to make it my own.

The only thing holding me back was a total lack of skills. I couldn’t garden and I couldn’t cook to save myself. Luckily time was on my side so I set out to teach myself everything that I would need to know about growing food and cooking it so that one day I could live in my own little slice of paradise. First off, I learnt to grow things. I continued my wwoofing journey around Australia, gleaning little bits of farming and gardening knowledge at every farm that I visited. After I returned home to the Hunter Valley, I continued my green thumb apprenticeship by volunteering for local permaculture groups and community gardens. It was while working with these groups that I witnessed the power of growing food as a community. I realised the way it could bring together people from all kinds of different backgrounds to share in a common joy, and the way that ideas and knowledge were freely shared between people. It made me realise that I didn’t want to work towards being self-sufficient, I wanted to be a part of a community that shared the same values as me when it came to food.

By this stage I was pretty confident that I could grow things to eat. By no means was I a master gardener but I had certainly come a long way. Cooking, on the other hand, was an entirely different story. I clearly remember my culinary low point. I was still in my early twenties and strapped for cash. I wanted to cook something that was hearty and cheap and I thought fried rice wouldn’t be too difficult to whip up. It sounded straightforward. How hard could it be to fry rice? I bought a pack of rice and a few other bits and bobs to go with it and set to work. I heated up a frypan, added a little oil and then poured in a couple of cups of uncooked rice. I stirred and stirred, turned the heat up and then down again, added more oil, but the rice just wouldn’t cook. You can laugh – it’s ok, that’s what my friends, who were all capable cooks, did when they came home and caught me in this act of culinary neophytism. My failed fried rice was a sign that I was severely lacking in the kitchen skills department, so I did what no rational person would and took on a chef’s apprenticeship.

I got my start working for a mate at a nice enough café on the local strip. I did more dishes than cooking for the first couple of months but I was already learning the basics. Over the next couple of years I chased progressively more prestigious kitchens until eventually I found myself shaking the pans at a fancy fine diner in Melbourne. Here I learnt a lot about food and myself. I was shown how to butcher, fillet, dice very finely, make sauces and soufflés and how to put food beautifully onto a plate. I also discovered that I could work ninety hours a week, barely see the sun and survive on a diet of adrenaline, coffee and cigarettes. I found that you could cook hundreds of meals a day and never sit down to enjoy one yourself, and that when people pay for food at a flash restaurant they often spend more time looking for flaws than enjoying the meal. I realised that I had become so preoccupied with becoming a better cook that I had totally forgotten why I wanted to cook in the first place. After two years in that stainless steel tank, I resigned and reassessed where I was headed.

After a bit of soul-searching I decided to pack up and move to Tasmania, back to the state where it all began. My partner and I both took jobs working for a restaurant where the owners genuinely cared for their staff and about the provenance of everything they put on the menu. We put a deposit on a little place in a coastal village about forty-five minutes out of Hobart and I set to work turning the yard into a food-producing paradise. I bought my first chickens, collected my first home-grown eggs, planted fruit trees and nut trees and converted the bluestone-covered front yard into a veggie patch. Finally, I was living the dream.

It was at this point that a relative contacted my partner to say that the
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e anchored on the palate.

Tangy

Tangy (often called sour) and its close cousin, the vinted taste of wine, are primarily experienced in the mouth rather than the nose. We say they pull rather than push because that is what it feels like. Think about it: when you have a lot of vinegar in something, the tongue feels as if it’s contracting. Anyone who was ever puckered after biting into a tart lemon and then tasted a fried shrimp understands that the lemon feels as if it’s pulling flavor out of the shrimp. In contrast to the push tastes, tangy ingredients never smooth out or round flavors: instead, they seem to brighten them and make them more distinct. If salt is the king of tastes, tangy is the queen, perhaps not the most faithful of queens, though: she partners up just as easily with sweet, hot, and just about every other taste with the possible exception of bitter.

Vinted

Had we undertaken to write this book about the tastes of the cuisines of China, India, Korea, Nigeria, or Morocco, we might well have forgone the taste of wine when used as an ingredient. Still, there’s no question that in modern Western gastronomy wine is a critical element. Wine has an alchemistic capacity to elevate the tasting and dining experience. Enough has been written on wine as a beverage that we don’t need to add our two cents. Our interest is in wine as a food ingredient. Wine has two pulling characteristics. As a fermented fruit, it has tang just like any other fruit, but it is rather mote concentrated. Red wine, because of bitter tannins, “puckers” the tongue and makes it pull out even more flavor or taste. This bitterness helps wine to cut through other tastes and to clean the palate. The fruitiness in wine also pulls forward sweetness and complements salt. It is a powerful and complex ingredient and certainly a fundamental one in Western cuisine.

Bulby

The reason that so many recipes start with the instruction to “sweat shallots in oil” (or with the variation to brown some onions or garlic) is that it works so well. When you walk up to a house where someone is frying onions, you can tell before you even open the door what’s going on inside. The same goes for a pan full of garlic, shallots, or leeks. They are all very forward aromas that tend to fill up the nose.

Clearly, these ingredients all have something in common, and just as clearly there isn’t a common name for that common thing. We chose the word “bulby” for the reason that these members of the onion family all grow from bulbs, and it is the flesh of these sharp-tasting bulbs that is transformed by heat into one of the most effective carriers and enhancers of taste.

When eaten raw, bulby vegetables are odiferous, with a taste that some find pleasantly sharp but an aroma most considerately enjoyed at some distance from an intimate friend. Cooked bulby vegetables, however, are a sweetly different story. When you put them in a hot pan, bulby vegetables caramelize: their sharpness turns to nutty sugar. They are often the first aroma that arises from any dish. They have a pleasant sweetness, and as they fill up the nose with their bouquet, they have a tendency to pull all the flavors in a dish forward. They have a particular affinity for the sweet elements in meats and vegetables. In spite of this they don’t pair up too well with some inherently sweet things like fruits. Of all the tastes that affect the nose and pull other tastes up, bulby ingredients do it most broadly.

Floral Herbal

Floral herbal ingredients are, for the most part, green and leafy but they also include such things as lemongrass and, for certain purposes, lemon zest or ginger. We call them floral because they remind us of flowers and their delicate aromas. They often serve to pull up and locus specific tastes. Thus, the herbs that have a licoricey taste, such as tarragon and basil, will pull up the sweet side of a recipe. Rosemary, thyme, and oregano accent saltiness, meatiness, and fishiness, as well as helping to define the garden tastes of tomato, peppers, and so on. Chili peppers and cilantro go together so well that in Mexican cooking it is hard to find picante tastes without cilantro alongside. Lemon zest and ginger accent the element in fruit that differentiates it from pure sugar.

In context, some other ingredients can serve a floral herbal function from time to time. Olive oil has a floral aspect that works well with herbs and makes it superior to other oils or butter when you want to bring out the garden vegetable side of things. Likewise, honey adds a floral note to sweetness that sets it apart from cane sugar or maple syrup. We use the word floral metaphorically, but it can also be taken literally. For example New Delhi chefs bathe some desserts in rosewater, and the Zapotecs of Oaxaca, Mexico, make a memorable quail with rose petals.

Spiced Aromatic

If we return to our musical analogy, floral herbs discussed above are like a harp or
rice’s inedible outside covering, or husk. Rice hulls are burned as a source of fuel, used as mulch, and are also used in manufacturing.

Rice paper: edible rice paper is made from rice flour and water, formed into translucent sheets that are supple when wet, brittle when dry; used as wrappers in Vietnamese and Thai cooking. Rice paper also refers to a decorative paper known for its textural beauty; it is made from the pulp of a scrub called the rice paper tree, related to the mulberry bush. Rice straw and hulls are also used to make decorative papers.

Rice syrup: a mildly sweet syrup with the consistency of honey, made from rice fermented with enzymes from sprouted barley. Mostly used in the food industry as a coating for snack foods.

Rice vinegar: vinegar made from fermented rice. Japanese rice vinegar is light and mild. Chinese rice vinegar is sharp and sour.

Rice wine: wine made from fermented steamed rice. Sake and mirin (a sweet wine used in cooking) are two Japanese rice wines. China and other rice-growing cultures make a variety of alcoholic beverages, including beer and brandy, as well as wine, from fermented rice.

Risotto: a northern Italian dish prepared by constantly stirring rice while adding small amounts of simmering broth until the consistency is creamy. Italians prefer medium-grain Vialone Nano, Carnaroli, and Arborio rices for risotto because they have a distinctive core, called the pearl, that remains just slightly firm when cooked. Baldo and California medium-grain rices can also be used.

Rosematta: a parboiled rice from the Indian state of Kerala. The grains are large and almost round, about the size of barley, with a reddish bran and an earthy, meaty taste and aroma.

Rough rice: Rice with its rough hull still intact; also called paddy rice.

Sake: a Japanese wine made from carefully selected rice and the purest water. Premium sake is served chilled; lower-grade sake is served warm. In cooking, it is used in marinades and sauces. Today sake is made in the United States in California, Colorado, and Oregon.

Samba: a tiny, almost round, rice grown in southern India and Sri Lanka. The sample I tasted had a unique herbaceous flavor and aroma. Samba can have either sticky or dry starch, depending on its genetic makeup, although high amylose (dry starch) rice is typical of Sri Lanka.

Short-grain rice: refers to rice varieties with almost round grains that are soft and cling together when cooked. Sushi rice is considered a short-grain rice. The term can be confusing, because in Italy and Spain the rices used for risotto and paella are called short-grain although they are technically medium-grain. Also used in soups and puddings.

Socarrat: the caramelized rice clinging to the bottom of the paella pan. The word comes from the Spanish verb socarrar, “to toast lightly.”

Sticky rice: term used for waxy, sweet, or glutinous rices, but confusing because there are so many different types of rice within this category. Domestically grown sticky rice, which does not hold its shape when cooked, is used as a stabilizer in processed foods. Asian sticky rice is a whole different world of long-and short-grain rices that may be white, black, or even red. Some need to be soaked before cooking; some don’t. The sticky rice, also called sweet rice, is opaque white, as opposed to translucent, with a small oval shape. It is 100 percent amylopectin, the waxy starch, which means it is very sticky. It is used in many Asian desserts, which is probably why it is called sweet rice.

Guidelines for Buying and Storing Rice

White Rice

Check freshness of rice by examining the grains: they should be translucent and free of dust, broken particles, or residue.

Store airtight in a jar or box in a dark cupboard. If you don’t use it often, refrigerate.

Brown, Red, and Black Rice

The bran on rice is perishable and can turn rancid quickly, especially if the rice isn’t stored properly. When buying in bulk, sniff the rice to make sure it has a clean, nutty aroma. When buying in bags or boxes, check freshness as for white rice.

Store in a dark, cool, dry place at room temperature for up to 1 month. For longer storage, refrigerate, tightly covered.

To Store Cooked Rice: Cooked rice can be tightly covered and refrigerated for 4 to 5 days. Cooked rice can be frozen, but will get mushy. Use it in puddings or soups. Brown rice freezes more successfully than white.

Rice Yields

1 cup uncooked white rice = 3 cups cooked

1 cup uncooked brown rice = 3½ cups cooked

1 cup wild rice = 3½ to 4 cups cooked

Sushi rice: a short-grain rice with smooth glassy grains. When cooked the rice is sticky. Sushi is the preparation of cooked rice seasoned with rice vinegar and sugar. The rice is shaped into ovals and t

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