- Full Title: Encyclopedia of Kitchen History
- Autor: Mary Ellen Snodgrass
- Print Length: 696 pages
- Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition
- Publication Date: September 27, 2004
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 1579583806
- ISBN-13: 978-1579583804
- Download File Format | Size: pdf | 17,67 Mb
ading health messages and fad diets? Confused about food? And do you want to know how to lose weight and have a healthier, happier body, for life? Look no further—nutrition scientist Dr Joanna McMillan’s Get Lean, Stay Lean is perfect for you.
Get Lean, Stay Lean is an inspiring, evidence-based lifestyle program that contains all the tools you need to embrace great health and take control of your weight.
Dr Joanna will guide you through the six steps of Get Lean, Stay Lean to help reboot your body’s computer and change the way it works, for the better. As a result, you’ll become better at burning fat, controlling your appetite, controlling blood glucose and insulin levels, better at exercise, you’ll perform better at work, and you’ll have more energy to enjoy your life. The book includes:
A flexible template for eating, so you can build your own healthy diet, rich in plant food, high in protein and fibre, with a perfect balance of smart carbs and good fats
Over 100 delicious, nutritionally balanced recipes the whole family will love
Nutritional breakdown, notes and portion guidance for every recipe
‘Joanna McMillan gets the lifestyle medicine formula exactly right. She practises it reliably, represents it beautifully, and in Get Lean, Stay Lean pays it forward enticingly … Healthy people have more fun, and this book will help you get there from here.’
David L Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP, FACLM
Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center
Dr Joanna is one of Australia’s most trusted health and wellbeing experts. She is a PhD qualified nutrition scientist, an accredited practising dietitian and a former fitness instructor, giving her the sound credentials required to guide you through the increasingly confusing nutrition and health messages in the media.
Dr Joanna is a regular on television, radio and in print media, an international speaker on lifestyle medicine and the founder of Get Lean, an online lifestyle change program.
For further information and advice on the Get Lean program go to www.drjoanna.com.au . A Get Lean App is also available to help with meal planning and portion control.
Roast veggie salad with pomegranate dressing
Part 1: The 6 Steps to Get Lean, Stay Lean
The 6 Steps
Step 1: Food
Step 2: Drink
Step 3: Exercise
Step 4: Activity
Step 5: Stress
Step 6: Sleep
Your Get Lean, Stay Lean eating guide
Sample weekly menu plan during the get lean phase
Part 2: Get Lean, Stay Lean recipes
It is now the norm across much of the world to be fat. This is despite a multi-million-dollar slimming industry comprising special supplements, home delivery meal offerings, meal replacement shakes, diet clubs, exercise programs, diets galore and numerous weight loss programs. So what on earth is going wrong? Could there possibly be room for another book on the subject?
I firmly believe the answer is yes. Not because the advice in this book is the latest scientific breakthrough or the newest fad diet to hit the headlines, but precisely because it doesn’t offer a quick fix. This book will not give you a beach body in 10 days. But keep reading because what it will give you instead is far more valuable. What you will find here are the skills, the knowledge and the inspiration to make the real changes required to your diet and lifestyle, in order to achieve lasting, permanent results.
Get Lean, Stay Lean is not a program with an end date—it’s a way of life. It’s not about being perfect or becoming some sort of health evangelist. It’s a do-able, realistic, joyful and delicious way of living life that aligns with great health, vitality and weight control.
There is no doubt it’s hard to be a healthy weight in the modern world—it is what experts call an ‘obesogenic environment’. We are surrounded by an abundance of food, with many of the cheapest options the worst for us, and we make some 200 decisions regarding food every single day. Our activity levels have dropped substantially and exercise is now rarely part and parcel of everyday life; we have to buck against our nature to reserve energy and instead choose to be active. Our work lives are often more demanding on our time, while stress levels go through the roof. All of this takes a toll on our sleep patterns, and the fact that sleep clinics are popping up everywhere is testament to the fact that this is now a common problem.
You might think it’s all in your genes and therefore you can’t do anything about your body shape. But the good news is that genes are not necessarily your destiny and they are certainly not set in stone. The hot new research area is epigenetics. Although you have been given a set of
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ok simply – easy pastas, quick hearty salads and all-in-one gratins – the more I realise that food doesn’t need to be posh, complicated or made from far-flung ingredients to do us good. It’s the quick-to-make, everyday and weeknight meals that we eat on, say, Tuesdays and Wednesdays that make a real difference in our lives. These meals are the ‘bread and butter’ of our eating week and the most important ones to focus on.
At the same time that we are being busier than ever, there is also a movement towards balancing things out. There’s a desire to treat our bodies well and to look after ourselves physically, mentally and spiritually. And an awful lot of this centres around the food we eat.
There has been a real shift in the way we look at food. More people are conscious of what they’re putting into their shopping baskets, more people are buying seasonally, and more people are cooking at home. For the first time in two generations, home cooking is firmly back in fashion and an ever-increasing number of people are actively choosing to eat a diet centred around vegetables on at least a few days a week.
Making vegetables the focus of our diet is widely considered to be the single most important thing we can do for our own health and for the health of the planet. Over the last couple of years, eating a plant-based diet has moved from the domain of brightly painted veggie cafés to proud centre stage.
I hope this book will show you how to do this in your home without too much fuss. It’s packed full of the food I like to eat and the food I like to cook. To my mind, it’s this straight-up everyday food that is so important for us to get right, and get enthused about. And it’s the recipes in this book that I hope will help you cook achievable amazing meals every night of the week.
This book is my notebook of recipes, over 150 of them, flavour-packed with layers of texture and goodness. I hope they will be able to revolutionise how you cook and eat in the same way they have in my home. It’s modern cooking, making the most of a rainbow of grains and vegetables and using flavour and texture to transform your dinners into quick and easy feasts.
They’re recipes I am really proud of. From super-clever and ridiculously quick fifteen-minute one-pot pasta, to a Buddha bowl curry feast that would be grand enough to grace any table, this is the food that makes me happy. The sort that drives my cooking, led by flavour, texture and a deep love and respect for food.
I am passionate about eating food that makes me feel good, and while I’ll sometimes reach for a trashy chocolate bar or a stodgy pub roast (which is all part of being human and nothing to be ashamed of), I know that’s not the food that I feel good eating.
I want stand-out, delicious food that leaves me feeling energised, light, bright and satisfied. It’s this intersection between wellness and deliciousness that I strive for with every plate of food I make and eat. And with all the talk of health and wellness in the food industry, I think this sweet spot is becoming ever more important. Wellness doesn’t come at the expense of deliciousness.
I welcome with open arms the new breadth of information and attention around eating well, and I am so thrilled that we are all putting more focus on what we put into our bodies and on the connection between the food we eat and how vibrantly we live.
But I also think it’s important to remember that we are all individuals, each with our own completely separate nutritional needs. I can tell you what works for my body, but I honestly can’t tell you exactly what’s going to work for yours. Nor in my opinion can any chef or, really, any nutritionist. While nutritionists can absolutely be a guide, it is you who have to do the work. You need to have a relationship with your body and a responsibility to listen to it and how it reacts to certain foods. If you feel tired and bloated after eating something, make a change next time – eat a smaller portion, or try a different way of cooking, or another ingredient.
There are lots of people out there ready to name superfoods that can help us lose weight, cure illness and make us more attractive and amazing. It sometimes feels to me as though all this sometimes over-the-top focus on nutrition and ‘clean eating’ has almost become the new, more acceptable way to be on a diet. And in a weird way, that isn’t promoting a healthy attitude to food at all.
It’s important to make a commitment to eating well, but it’s also important to be realistic. Cooking goodness-packed meals every night is going to have a huge impact on your health, and simply getting more vegetables into your diet is a great first step. You can worry about matcha and chia seeds later on.
To me, eating well is far more simple than it is often made out to be. Buy good ingredients, cook at home, make the majority of what you e
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be off in temperature. If your oven is not heating evenly, you’ll especially see this when cooking layer cakes. One layer could be done and the other still raw in the middle. This frustrating occurrence can easily be avoided! I bought a little oven thermometer at the store for a few dollars. Use it to determine the spot in your oven that has the most accurate temperature reading. Try to place cakes in that spot to ensure even and consistent baking.
Prepare your pans
I prefer to use a nonstick spray for my baking pans. Typically I buy one specifically made for baking.
Try using cake strips
These are water-soaked fabric strips that wrap around the cake pan. They can slow down the heat that reaches the edges of the cake and help with even baking. I’ve used both purchased cake strips and homemade, and I find that they both work equally well. To make your own, simply cut a towel into 1½-inch-wide strips. Thoroughly soak the towel strips in water prior to using. Place them around the outside of the cake pan and either tie them in place with a knot or insert a pin to fasten.
Don’t let cake layers touch one another or the sides of the oven when baking.
Make sure there is at least an inch between cake pans. I prefer to bake all my cakes on the center rack of my oven, approximately 9 inches from the top and 9 inches from the bottom. I can successfully bake four 8-inch layers or three 9-inch layers on the middle rack.
Don’t be an impatient baker.
Do not check on the cake before the halfway mark. If your cake needs 18 minutes to bake, you are safe to start checking it around the 13-minute mark.
Test the cake about 5 minutes before it’s supposed to be done.
Use a toothpick or cake tester and insert it into the cake. If any wet batter clings to the toothpick, the cake needs to bake more. If the toothpick comes out clean or with minimal crumbs, then the cake is done.
If your cake still comes out domed even after you’ve taken precautions, you’ll need to carefully cut off the domed part with a serrated bread knife or a cake leveler. You can also place a clean dish towel over the hot cake and gently press down. This can help lower the dome but typically will not make the cake completely flat.
“Doming” isn’t my problem—what do I do if my cake falls in the center?
Specifically for these recipes, that’s not always a bad thing. As long as the cake is fully cooked in the center, you can still use it! You’ll often remove the center of the cake to make the surprise inside, so it might work to your advantage. If you really do need a level cake, you can always bake a new one and keep the collapsed cake in the freezer. It will work wonderfully for a future project!
What to do with extra cake
If you have leftover cake mixture or whole cakes, I would recommend freezing. But by far the best option is to eat it. Since we’re often gifting the cakes we make or sharing them on special occasions, having a little leftover cake can be a big treat to all those who have watched you make your labor of love.
Making the Surprise
Success in making surprise-inside cakes depends on having them firm enough to cut and carve. This involves freezing the cake elements at various points in the process. It’s much easier to work on a chilled cake. You’ll be able to get precise cuts and almost eliminate crumbs.
For freezing multiple layers of cake, separate each layer with a sheet of parchment paper. If I’m using those layers within hours of placing in the freezer I will use a sheet of parchment between each layer. If the cakes will be in the freezer for longer than 6 hours I will wrap each layer in plastic wrap then place in a plastic sealable bag.
When freezing your cakes during the building process, follow the recommended time frames. For a cake that has been freezing overnight or for 24 hours, you have about 30 minutes to get all your modifications done before it starts getting too soft and crumbly.
My typical recommendation is to freeze a finished cake for at least 6 hours before serving. I often freeze my cakes for days! It’s amazing how quickly they thaw out. For a cake that has been in the freezer for 6 hours, I would recommend serving it right out of the freezer.
If you freeze a finished cake for longer, be sure to thaw it in the fridge and not at room temperature. The most important thing is to just make sure your cake has had a chance to chill and set up before serving. The more intricate the design in the interior of the cake, the longer it should chill.
Cutting and carving
The “surprise” in a surprise-inside cake will often depend on carving out cones, cylinders, channels, valleys, and wells from cakes. To direct the cuts, you’ll rely on things like cookie cutters, skewers, kitchen string, rulers—even a glass, bowl, or container lid, if it’s the right size. For cutting you’ll rely on cookie cutters (again), paring knives, serrated knives, sou
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A straightforward saucepan of 1–2 pint capacity, of heavy quality and with a well-balanced handle, is another asset to anyone who intends to practise serious sauce-making. If this pan is to be a copper one, it is important that the tinning be kept in good condition, so for stirring use a wooden spoon or spatula rather than a whisk which scratches and quickly wears out the tin.
The more experienced cook, progressing to specialized work, may want to invest in the traditional untinned hemispherical copper egg bowl which is unequalled for the successful beating of egg whites but not easy to keep in immaculate condition. An untinned heavy quality (and unless it is heavy quality, a minimum of one-sixteenth of an inch thick, don’t bother with it) preserving pan is another worthwhile buy, and so, for the ambitious pastry cook or confectioner, is an untinned, lipped, sugar-boiling pan. It should be noted that it is because the melting point of tin is lower than the boiling point of sugar that copper pans for jam-making, confectionery and sugar-work generally are never tinned. To clean untinned copper, rub with a cut lemon dipped in fine salt, or with a soft rag dipped in a strong solution of vinegar and salt.
Certain silver-lined copper pans of Swiss origin now to be found on the English market are of very fine quality and design. These elegant casseroles, sauté pans and marmites are hand finished and have a great allure. They are the modern equivalents of, and will last as long as, the beautiful silver or Sheffield-plate kitchen and dining room treasures – the brandy-warmers, the butter melters, the chafing dishes – of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In other words they are collectors pieces at collectors prices.
Silver linings of copper pans tarnish quickly but are easy to clean (use a silver-polishing cloth) and need less frequent renewal than tin linings. Better than either are the heavy stainless steel linings which need no upkeep at all and should last for ever.
Heavy copper, cast aluminium, and cast iron pans with machine-turned bases are all suitable for all types of cooking stoves. So is stainless steel, but it is a bad heat conductor and to be efficient a stainless steel pan must be heavily copper-clad on the base, which makes for enormous and, it seems to me, unnecessary expense.
Whether you choose cast aluminium, enamelled steel, tinned copper, enamelled cast iron or stainless steel, be sure to have at least two deep stew pans, one large and one small, with a small handle at each side; in these all manner of soups and stews can be put in the oven as well as on top of the stove, an essential requirement for anyone who has other duties than those of a cook to attend to. For boiling potatoes keep one special pan with an enamel lining. Another essential is a shallow oval or round fireproof pan which will go under the grill or in a very hot oven for dishes which are to be browned quickly. One large pan of a minimum 1½ gallon capacity is a necessity for cooking rice and spaghetti, and for anything over four people you must have a still larger one, say 2 to 3 gallons’ capacity, and this will do for the boiling of chickens and for making stock. Shallow, two-handled pots from seven to ten inches in diameter and about three inches deep for risotto, pot roasts, various forms of ragoûts and vegetable dishes are a blessing. These can be found in copper, cast aluminium or, better still, enamel-lined cast iron with machine-turned bases.
Earthenware casseroles and terrines for oven cooking should be in every household; for some of the French farmhouse and peasant dishes described in this book they are essential; cassoulets, choux farcis, daubes and civets, lose something of their flavour and a good deal of their charm if cooked in an ordinary saucepan. Earthenware pots can be put on the top of gas and electric stoves, provided an asbestos mat or the more solid modern fire-clay simmer-plate is put underneath. The important point to remember is never to pour cold water into one of these casseroles while it is hot, or it will crack.
For eggs, good frying and omelette pans are obviously needed, and little dishes for eggs en cocotte. Plain white, fireproof porcelain or glass egg-dishes can be found in various sizes, and these are the most satisfactory for baked eggs and eggs sur le plat, as the egg does not stick as it does to earthenware. The larger sizes are useful for an infinite variety of little dishes. Three frying-pans and one omelette pan are not too many, and they should all be heavy, with a perfectly flat bottom, or the food will never be evenly fried. Have one general-purpose ten- to twelve-inch frying-pan, preferably with a lip so that it is easy to pour off the fat; one which is kept for steaks and cutlets and so on; one small one (say six inches) for frying a few croûtons for soup or anyt
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, if you are thoroughly skilled in French techniques, because the repertoire is so vast, you have the background for almost any type of cuisine. In other words, and at the risk of creating mayhem in some circles, I think you are better as an Italian, Mexican, or even Chinese cook when you have a solid French foundation.
There is certainly nothing particularly difficult about the basics. It is a question of getting started, and of learning how to pick the best and freshest ingredients, and of knowing, reading, seeing, or being shown how to hold the knife, chop the onion, peel the asparagus, make the butter and flour roux, and above all of taking it seriously. If you are not used to slicing potatoes by hand or peeling, seeding, and juicing tomatoes you will be slow and a little clumsy at first. However, once you decide you are really going to do it right, you will find that with surprisingly little practice you are mastering the techniques.
The recipes here are thoroughly detailed since this is a teaching book. How about eight pages on making a simple omelet? You’ve got all the directions and if you can read, you can cook. You are learning by doing, and if the dish is to turn out as it should, no essential direction can be left out. How far, for instance, should the chicken be from the heat element when you are broiling it? Five to six inches. Or how fast should the oil be beaten in when you are making the garlic-and-mustard coating for a roast leg of lamb? Drop by drop. Every detail takes up space, making some actually quite simple recipes look long.
Certainly one of the important requirements for learning how to cook is that you also learn how to eat. If you don’t know how an especially fine dish is supposed to taste, how can you produce it? Just like becoming an expert in wine—you learn by drinking it, the best you can afford—you learn about great food by finding the best there is, whether simple or luxurious. Then you savor it, analyze it, and discuss it with your companions, and you compare it with other experiences.
In the 1950s, when this book was conceived, and on into the 1980s, we in this country pretty well ate as we liked with little or no attention paid to lashings of the best butter and the heaviest cream. You will note this indulgence here, especially in sauces, where you reduce them with cream or where you swirl in fresh butter a generous tablespoon at a time to render them smooth, shining, and luscious. I have not changed any of these original proportions or directions, because this is the way the dishes were conceived. However, do use your own judgment as to how much or how little of the enrichments you care to use, since the amounts will not interfere with the basic recipe. In my case, for instance, I have been known to substitute a modest teaspoon for the generous tablespoon.
Finally, I do think the way to a full and healthy life is to adopt the sensible system of “small helpings, no seconds, no snacking, and a little bit of everything.” Above all—have a good time!
What a happy task you have set for yourself! The pleasures of the table are infinite. Toujours bon appétit!
THE STORY OF “MASTERING” AT KNOPF
by Judith Jones
IN JUNE OF 1960 a hefty manuscript—a treatise on French cooking by an American woman, Julia Child, and two French ladies, Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle—landed on my desk. I had been an editor at Knopf for about three years, working primarily on translations of French books. But it was no secret that I had a passion for French cooking, so I was the logical person to read it.
The manuscript had been sent down from Cambridge by Avis de Voto, who worked as a scout for the Knopfs. She was the wife of the historian and writer Bernard de Voto, who had had a lively transatlantic correspondence with Julia on the subject of knives as a result of a piece he had done in The Atlantic Monthly. Avis soon became involved when she heard that Julia was working on a cookbook in Paris with Mesdames Beck and Bertholle, and she offered to try to find an American publisher. Her first submission met rejection, the publisher’s comment being, Why would any American want to know this much about French cooking?
Well, it so happened that I did. As I turned the pages of this manuscript, I felt that my prayers had been answered. I had lived in Paris for three and a half years—at just about the same time the Childs were there, although our paths had never crossed—and most of what I learned then about cooking I absorbed from the butcher, the baker, the greengrocer, and the fishmonger. I would ask questions of them all, and then back in my tiny kitchen I would try to remember what the butcher’s wife had told me about making frites or the poissonière about sautéing a dorade.
When I returned to the States, I realized how totally inadequate the few books that dealt with French food really were. They were simply compendiums
When the sugar has dissolved, reduce the heat and leave to simmer for 5 minutes, then remove from the heat and leave to cool.
Prepare the fruit: Using whatever juicer you have on hand, juice all the lemons; you’ll need 500 ml (17 fl oz/2 cups) lemon juice all up. Cut the passionfruit in half and scoop out the pulp, making sure you catch all the juice.
Mix together: When the syrup has cooled, add the lemon juice and passionfruit pulp. Stir until well combined.
Bottle and store: Using a funnel, pour the cordial into two clean bottles. Seal and store in the fridge, where the cordial will keep for up to 1 month.
Serve: Serve over ice, with lots of sparkling water.
HOW TO USE
This cordial and the ones on the following pages are incredibly versatile. They all make a perfect base for cocktails: one-third fill a glass with your chosen cordial, top with a shot of gin, soda water (club soda) and mint, and serve on a hot summer’s afternoon.
Splash a little cordial over a seasonal fruit salad of strawberries, watermelon and grapes in late summer, or apples, pears and persimmon in winter. Serve with ice cream or sweetened Whipped ricotta.
Whisk some Ginger cordial with olive oil, paprika, garlic, mustard, salt and pepper and use as a marinade for slow-roasted pulled pork.
Use the Ginger cordial in a classic Dark and Stormy. Combine equal parts cordial, soda water (club soda) and dark rum; add a big squeeze of lime juice and crushed ice.
Add a teaspoon of your favourite cordial to sweeten iced tea.
Blood orange & rosemary cordial
Blood oranges are one of the most beautiful fruits around. If the frosts are good, the season will be full of juicy oranges with a vibrant red juice, perfect for cordials. The addition of rosemary gives a more complex flavour. If you can’t find blood oranges, this cordial works just as well with regular oranges.
MAKES: 2 x 700 ml (24 fl oz) bottles
500 ml (17 fl oz/2 cups) water
440 g (15½ oz/2 cups) raw sugar
1 small rosemary sprig
500 ml (17 fl oz/2 cups) blood orange juice; depending on their size, you’ll need about 7 oranges
250 ml (9 fl oz/1 cup) lemon juice; you’ll need about 5 large juicy, thin-skinned lemons
Combine the water, sugar and rosemary in a large heavy-based saucepan. Bring to the boil. When the sugar has dissolved, reduce the heat and leave to simmer for 5 minutes, then remove from the heat and leave to cool.
Using whatever juicer you have on hand, juice the oranges and lemons.
When the syrup has cooled, remove the rosemary and stir in the blood orange and lemon juice.
Using a funnel, pour the cordial into two clean bottles. Seal and store in the fridge, where the cordial will keep for up to 1 month.
Serve over ice, with lots of sparkling water.
Rhubarb & quince cordial
There is nothing punk rock about this ruby red, sweet sparkly cordial. It is perfect for long afternoons, pretty dresses and high tea. The colour is gorgeous and the combination of tart rhubarb and fragrant quince is unbeatable. If quinces aren’t in season, you can leave them out and the cordial will still be lovely.
MAKES: 2 x 700 ml (24 fl oz) bottles
15 rhubarb stalks
440 g (15½ oz/2 cups) granulated white sugar
1.25 litres (52 fl oz/6 cups) water
Wash the rhubarb, then cut into bite-sized pieces, discarding the leaves and any greener bits of stalk. Peel the zest from the lemon into long strips using a vegetable peeler. Wash, peel and core the quinces, reserving the quince peelings.
Place the fruit, lemon zest, quince peelings, sugar and water in a large heavy-based saucepan and bring to a gentle boil. Cook over low heat until the rhubarb and quince are soft and you can mash them with the back of a wooden spoon; this should take about 20 minutes. Leave to cool and infuse for a few hours, or even overnight in the fridge.
Place a sieve over a bowl and pour in the fruit syrup mixture. Leave to drain for an hour or two.
Once it has drained, scoop the fruit out of the sieve and remove the quince peelings. Keep the rhubarb and quince for serving over Granola or pancakes, or to blend into sweet smoothies; be sure to use within the next day or two.
Using a funnel, pour the cordial into two clean bottles. Seal and store in the fridge, where the cordial will keep for up to 1 month.
It is the sharp bite of ginger that makes this deliciously versatile cordial so irresistible. When you leave the cordial to infuse overnight, try adding extra aromatics such as mint, rosemary, lemongrass, zested lime or lemon peel, or even some black peppercorns. Be sure not to throw away the ginger after you strain it – the leftover bits are perfect for using in chutneys and jams, or to flavour te