Four Kitchens by Colin Fassnidge [epub | 6,11 Mb] ISBN: 0857982346

  • Full Title: Four Kitchens
  • Autor: Colin Fassnidge
  • Print Length: 240 pages
  • Publisher: Penguin Random House Australia; Edition Unstated edition
  • Publication Date: June 1, 2014
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0857982346
  • ISBN-13: 978-0857982346
  • Download File Format | Size: epub | 6,11 Mb
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With the help of this cookbook, even the most humble meal can be transformed into restaurant-quality cuisine

Chef and restaurateur Colin Fassnidge leapt to prominence Down Under as the outspoken Irishman on Australian reality show My Kitchen Rules. His first book is an extension of what he’s created in his restaurants, The Four in Hand and 4Fourteen. An introduction for each section provides insight into Colin’s own inspiration, offers advice, and shares secrets to turn the modest home-cooked meal into impressive restaurant fare. The style of food is predominantly drawn from 4Fourteen, an all-day “Eating House” and bar, with an emphasis on share food, from small plates to whole animals. Includes dual measurements.

 

Editorial Reviews

About the Author

Colin Fassnidge has worked at some of Sydney’s most acclaimed restaurants, including Banc and est. In 2003 he took over Four In Hand dining room, and in May 2012, he opened the Sydney dining hotspot 4Fourteen, which has already established itself as a favorite among food critics and patrons alike.

 

Keywords

ational Trust Books

10 Southcombe Street

London W14 0RA

An imprint of Anova Books Company Ltd

Copyright © National Trust Books, 2008

Text copyright © Jane Eastoe

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

First eBook publication 2013 eBook ISBN: 978-1907892653

Also available in hardback Hardback ISBN: 9781905400591

The print edition of this book can be ordered direct from the publisher at the website www.anovabooks.com, or try your local bookshop. Also available at National Trust shops, including www.nationaltrustbooks.co.uk.

ADVISORY NOTE

Reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information and processes relating to edible wild plants, fungi, seafood and roadkill contained within this book however the information contained herein is of general interest and in no way replaces professional advice as to the relative safety of eating such foods. If you have any doubts whatsoever about your identification of wild plants or fungi, or whether any wild animal is fit for human consumption, do not eat it.

Neither the author, the publishers nor the National Trust make any warranties as to the safety or legality of consuming any wild foods. Any liability for inaccuracies or errors relating to the material contained within the book is expressly excluded to the fullest extent permitted by law. Reasonable care has been taken to ensure that information relating to laws and regulations reflects the general state of the law as understood by the author at the time of going to press. The author, publishers and National Trust make no warranties as to the accuracy of this information and exclude liability to the fullest extent of the law for any consequences resulting from reliance upon it.

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

FRUIT

NUTS, SEEDS AND ROOTS

FLOWERS

SEAWEED

SEAFOOD

FUNGI

COLOUR SECTION

PLANT LEAVES

ROADKILL

USEFUL ORGANISATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AUTHOR’S ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INDEX

INTRODUCTION

In our frenetic modern lives growing your own is, for many, a distant fantasy that simply cannot, despite best intentions, always be realised. Supermarkets are open 24 hours a day and seven days a week, their shelves groaning with produce that makes a mockery of the concept of seasonal food. Piling the trolley high simply does not fulfil our most basic hunter-gatherer instincts – though of course it does perform that essential task of allowing us to feed the family – and we are becoming, quite literally, totally distant from our food source, often many thousands of air miles distant.

It turns shopping into a somewhat guilty experience for the conscientious buyer. Are those delicious plump, red strawberries English, or have they been flown in from Portugal? Is cauliflower seasonal in August? Should I buy another bag of ultra-convenient washed salad greens when I know there are already two mouldering in the recesses of the refrigerator, way past their best-by date? Why do I have to buy jam when my mother managed to make it?

Apart from trying to buy food locally and seasonally, or throwing ourselves into full-time fruit and vegetable production with a couple of pigs and a few chickens, it is very hard to keep in touch with our natural food sources.

In fact most of us are overlooking a wonderful food supply, one that satisfies us personally and, in a very small way, benefits us financially: the wild larder. We have become so out of touch with food that we no longer recognise wild food as something we can utilise. If it isn’t shrink wrapped and in a protective plastic container then how can we be sure it is safe to eat? I am not suggesting that gathering some wild greens, or picking fruit, nuts or fungi is in any way going to make you fully self-sufficient, or completely replace the weekly trip to the supermarket. What it does do is put you back in touch with nature and introduce you to new tastes. It allows you, for once, to have a glut of food that can be used creatively.

THE WILD LARDER

Do many people buy fruit from the supermarket to make jams or jellies? No, jam and jelly making is all about utilising nature’s excess and you only get that when you grow your own or collect from the wild.

I have to confess to a parsimonious streak that utterly delights in the concept of getting food for free. It is a frankly naughty pleasure, as though I have stolen something. I always feel furtive as I waddle along, pockets heavy with wild plums or bullace, or drift by with armfuls of elderflower or elderberries. It is so rare in this day and age to get something for nothing that it feels forbidden.

Similarly I am exasperated by the wicked waste of
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obster Omelette ‘Thermidor’

Lobster or Shellfish Oil

Macaroni, Artichoke and Mushroom Cheese Pie

Mango Chutney

Mashed Potatoes

Mayonnaise

Mayonnaise-based Cider Dressing

Mini Toad in the Holes

Mint Sauce

Mussel, Leek and Tomato Casserole, with Spinach and a Warm Poached Egg

Mustard Butter Sauce

Nutmeg Ice-cream

Nutty Apple Crumble

Omelette Arnold Bennett

One-piece Roast Pork with Caramelized Apple and Chestnut Brussels Sprouts

Onion Gravy

Orange Marmalade

Pan-fried Cod with Carrots, Parsley and Over-cooked Bacon

Pan-fried Fillet of Red Mullet with Seared Oranges and Spring Onions

Pan-fried Red Mullet with a Tomato and Leek Soup

Parkin

Parsleyed Cod with Mustard Butter Sauce

Parsnip Potato Cakes

Peppered Mushrooms

Piccalilli

Pickled Damsons

Pickled Limes

Pickled Shallots or Onions

Pieces of Braised Beef with Slowly Caramelized Onions and Turnip Purée

Pigs’ Trotters Bourguignonne

Plum or Damson Cheese

Poached Eggs

Pork Crackling and Scratchings

Pork Sausages

Port and Stilton Cheese Toasts

Potato Cakes

Prawn (or Lobster) Cocktail

Preserved (Confit) Bacon

Pressed Guinea Fowl Terrine with Shallots, Mushrooms and Bacon

Pressed Ox Tongue

Pressed Tomato Cake with Peppered Goat’s Cheese

Queen of Puddings

Quick Puff or Flaky Pastry

Rabbit Leg Casserole with Marjoram and Mustard

Rabbit, Pork and Cider Potato Pie

Rack on Black

Radish and French Bean Salad with Seared Scallops

Raspberry Cranachan

Red-wine Sauce

Rhubarb and Apple Charlotte

Rhubarb Tart

Rich Pigeon Faggot on a Potato Cake with Mustard Cabbage

Rich Warm Chocolate Cake

Roast Chicken Legs with Sea Salt and Thyme

Roast Chicken Sandwich

Roast Chicken with Liver-thickened Gravy

Roast Fillets of Hare Wrapped in Ham, with Port and Walnuts

Roast Grouse

Roast Guinness Lamb

Roast Leg of Lamb

Roast Loin of Pork with an Apricot and Sage Stuffing

Roast Mushroom and Leek Shepherd’s Pie

Roast Parsnip Soup, Glazed with Parmesan and Chive Cream

Roast Partridges with Their Own Toasts and Wild Mushrooms

Roast Pheasant with Bacon-braised Barley and a Whisky Cream Sauce

Roast Rib of Beef

Roasted Figs with Brown Sugar Parfait

Roasted Parsnips

Rowan Jelly

Saffron Bread

Sage Broad Beans with Bacon and Tomato

Sage Fritters

Sally Lunn Cake or Bread

Salmon Fish Cakes

Sardine and Tomato Toasts

Sausage Rolls

Sausagemeat Loaf

Sautéd Potatoes

Sautéd Sea-salt Potatoes

Scallops with Grilled Black Pudding à I’orange

Scotch Eggs

Scotch Woodcock

Scottish Fruit Tart with Whisky

Seared, Cured Salmon Cutlets with Leeks, Bacon and a Cider-vinegar Dressing

Sesame Seed and Orange Tuiles

Shepherd’s Pie Fritters

Shepherd’s Pie or Cottage Pie

Sherry Trifle

Shortbread Biscuits

Shortcrust Pastry and Sweet Shortcrust Pastry

Simnel Cake

Simple Hollandaise Sauce

Slow-honey-roast Belly of Pork

Slow-honey-roast Duck

Slow-roast Shoulder of Pork with Pearl Barley and Sage ‘Stuffing’

Smoked Eel Kedgeree

Smoked Haddock

Smoked Haddock and Welsh Rarebit Tartlets

Smoked Haddock with Welsh Rarebit

Smoked Salmon Rolls

Smoked Salmon Terrine with Warm Potato Salad

Soft Herring Roes on Caper Toasts

Soused Mackerel

Spicy Scrambled Eggs

Spicy Smoked Haddock and Saffron Soup

Spicy Tomato and Mint Relish

Spinach Dumplings

Spotted Dick

Steak and ‘Kidney Pie’

Steak and Kidney Pudding

Steak and Oyster Pie

Steamed and Braised Mallard with a Parsnip Tart

Steamed Halibut and Cabbage with a Salmon Gravadlax Sauce

Steamed Leek and Cheddar-cheese Pudding

Steamed Lemon Sponge with Easy Lemon Sauce

Steamed Slice of Smoked Salmon on a Potato Cake, with Seared Lemons and a Caper Dressing

Steamed Turbot on Cabbage with ‘Truffle’ Sauce

Steamed Upside-down Blackberry and Apple Pudding

Stewed Prunes

Stewed Red-wine Beef with Anchovy Scones

Sticky Toffee Apple Pudding

Sticky Toffee Pudding Ice-cream

Stilton and Red-onion Salad with Peppered Beef Fillet

Stilton and Sesame Seed Biscuits

Strawberry Cheesecake Swiss Roll

Strawberry Jam

Stuffed Herrings with Apples and Tarragon

Suet Pastry

Sunday Lunch Roast

Summer Pudding

Syllabub

Tartar Sauce

The Classic Steak and Kidney Pie

The Great British Fried Egg

The Great British Omelette

Toad in the Hole

Traditional Roast Turkey with Sage, Lemon and Chestnut Stuffing and all the Trimmings

Tuile Biscuits

Twelfth Night Cake

Variation: Whisky Scotch Eggs

Veal or Beef Stock or Jus

Vegetable Stock

Vegetarian Cheese and Onion ‘Sausage’ Rolls

Vegetarian Scotch Broth

Warm Port and Fig Broth with Cream Cheese Ice-cream

Warm Spiced Pineapple Cakes

Watercress and Cream Cheese Sandwiches

Wayne’s Porridge

Welsh Rarebit

White C
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nutritionist and dentist. He traveled the world, studying indigenous peoples, and his findings clearly demonstrate the strong connection between diet and health. Wherever he went, he found that native people living on a traditional diet had very low rates of dental decay and sickness, whereas the same genetic groups eating a modern Western diet had higher rates of tooth decay and disease. His fascinating accounts are documented in the book Nutrition and Physical Degeneration (see Resources).

Recently, the Paleo diet has surged in popularity. Also known as the primal diet, caveman diet, Stone Age diet, or hunter-gatherer diet, it consists of fresh vegetables, fruits, roots, nuts, wild fish, free-range poultry, and grass-fed meat. It excludes all grains, legumes, dairy products, refined sugars, and processed oils. The modern Paleo diet is a whole lifestyle of particular foods and exercise, and it has many interpretations.

If you’re intolerant to gluten and enjoy delicious sweets, this book can be your best friend. The Paleo diet is the ultimate gluten-free solution, because it uses no grains. Gluten intolerance is the inability to digest gluten, the sticky protein found primarily in wheat. Millions of people worldwide suffer from gluten intolerance and celiac disease.

Gluten intolerance is the proverbial tip of an iceberg. We’re often told that whole grains are healthier than refined grains. And that is mostly true. However, increasing scientific evidence shows that all seeds, nuts, grains, and beans contain antinutrients that actually block their digestion. Mother Nature has done her job well, ensuring that seeds pass straight though the body undigested, in order to be planted in the ground.

What are antinutrients? They are natural chemicals in seeds, and include lectins, enzyme blockers, trypsin, and phytic acid. They may taste slightly bitter and can cause intestinal permeability or poor absorption of foods. Most grains, nuts, and seeds—including wheat, corn, and rice, the world’s primary foods—contain these natural anti-nutrients. Even gluten-free flours, made from almond, sorghum, amaranth, quinoa, fava, tapioca, chickpea, or teff, have antinutrients that can impede digestion.

When these flours are refined, they become less nutritious and are no longer a whole food. Now add preservatives and industrial farming chemicals, which must also be processed by the digestive system, and then top it off with refined sugar, which causes an imbalance in blood glucose levels, and you have an open invitation to many of our modern digestive diseases—gluten intolerance, celiac disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and so on. In simple words, it is my observation that poorly cultivated and prepared grains, plus sugar and chemicals, are a toxic combination in my gut and that of many people. Soaking is the best way to dissolve antinutrients and make whole grains digestible. Evidence shows that our Biblical ancestors soaked grains, and our great-grandmothers as well. Somewhere along the line this practice was forgotten, and we are left with indigestible grains. That’s why I adopted the Paleo diet. And I’m so glad I did. Instead of grains, these recipes use coconut. Pure unrefined coconut is delicious, nutritious, and easy to digest. It is free of chemicals and anti-nutrients. That’s why many people find the Paleo diet a perfect solution to living gluten-free. We can enjoy our favorite foods with no deprivation. We can have chocolate cupcakes and ice-cream sandwiches without guilt or discomfort.

The recipes in this book follow the strict guidelines developed by Dr. Cordain. They use no refined foods or high-carb sweeteners—no grains, coconut flour, coconut sugar, stevia, agave nectar, or even honey—with a zero or low impact on your blood sugar.

If you’re on a special diet and feel deprived, this book can be a true companion. Paleo Desserts are compatible with many alternative diets. Besides being Paleo and gluten-free/celiac-friendly, all these recipes are vegetarian, meaning they contain no meat. All recipes in this book are free of the common allergens: dairy, corn, potatoes, peanuts, and soy. They are also diabetic-friendly. In this book you will find 73 vegan recipes, such as Key Lime Pie. There are 67 tree nut-free recipes, and 35 desserts that are raw, such as Easy Chocolate Mousse. And the good news is they’re all made with fresh, whole-food ingredients, which I find even more delicious than their refined counterparts.

If you thought you had to give up sweets on the Paleo Diet, think again. In this book I offer you a full collection of favorite traditional desserts that conform 100 percent to the Paleo diet, with a zero or low impact on your blood sugar. Rather than thinking about what you’re eliminating, just take a look at the tremendous assortment of nutritious fruits, vegetables, roots, n
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grill about 15 cm away from the element and preheat the grill to high. Mix the olive oil with the chilli, thyme and garlic.

Brush the pitta breads on their cut side with the flavoured oil and lay on a baking sheet, oil-side down. Grill for 2–3 minutes until crisp on one side. Remove from the grill and turn over. Grill for 3–4 minutes on the other side until crisp, but don’t allow the crushed garlic to become too dark. Break up into pieces or cut into strips.

crostini

Crostini is a Tuscan invention, made with their ubiquitous salt-free bread, pan sciocco (silly bread). To balance this lack of salt, the toppings are generally quite salty, from anchovies and cured salamis to those with capers and Parmesan. The ciabatta crostini are a little more substantial than the canapé crostini and work well as a base for any antipasti. They can be topped with a homemade dip or some cured meat, cheese, sardines – almost anything. I make the canapé crostini for parties where you really only want a very small bite that you can eat without a plate. I bake them in the oven and they dry out more than they would if grilled – they can then be kept in an airtight container for up to a week.

ciabatta crostini

makes 8

1 ciabatta

5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

Slice the ciabatta 2 cm thick and place on a flat baking sheet. Position the shelf under the grill approximately 10–15 cm away from the element and preheat the grill to high.

Toast the ciabatta for 2–3 minutes on each side. Remove from the oven and brush with olive oil while still warm.

canapé crostini

makes 15

1 x 25 cm baguette

5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

Preheat the oven to 200°C/Gas 6. Cut the baguette into 1.5 cm thick slices and place Brush one side lightly with the oil and bake in the oven for 12–15 minutes until crisp.

Top with whatever topping you like, or bundle into an airtight container.

cinnamon butter toast

The smell of this toast is sweet, spicy and heavenly. It is ideal for moments when there is nothing to snack on, because you inevitably have these four ingredients tucked away. You can always make it with caster sugar if you don’t have any soft brown. I sometimes add a dash of rosewater to the sugar before spreading it on the toast, for a more exotic, slightly Moroccan-inspired flavour. If you can resist making a hot chocolate to go alongside, then I congratulate you.

makes 6

1 tbsp ground cinnamon

4 tbsp light muscavado sugar

30 g unsalted butter

a drop of rosewater (optional)

6 slices white bread

Position the shelf under the grill approximately 10–15 cm away from the element and preheat the grill to high. Mix together the cinnamon, sugar and butter in a bowl and set aside.

Spread the cinnamon sugar over both sides of the toast and place on a baking sheet. Slide under the hot grill for 1–2 minutes on each side until bubbling and golden. Cut into triangles and serve.

2

spreads

Quick lemon curd

Quick apricot jam

Vanilla and thyme honey

Chocolate hazelnut spread

Whipped blackberry soft cheese

Pecan maple and lemon butter

Orange blossom honey butter

Gentleman’s relish

White beans, chorizo and rocket

Avocado, lime and black pepper

Creamed Parmesan

Smoked mackerel pâté

Artichokes and Parma ham

quick lemon curd

When I was taught to make lemon curd I was told to stand over a bain-marie for what seemed like hours, laboriously stirring until I felt the egg thicken. It was a revelation when I discovered in Stephanie Alexander’s book, The Cook’s Companion, that the acidity in the lemons and amount of sugar stop any curdling and it can all be made in less than 5 minutes.

makes 300 ml jar

100 g unsalted butter

200 g golden caster sugar

Zest and juice of 3 medium or 2 large unwaxed lemons

3 eggs, beaten

Sterilise your jar, by running the jar and lid through the dishwasher, or boil in hot water for a couple of minutes and then invert on to a kitchen towel to dry.

Put the butter, sugar and lemon zest and juice into a heavy-based saucepan. Turn a hob ring to low and melt the contents of the pan, stirring until blended. Remove the pan from the heat and strain in the eggs to remove the lumpy bits.

Slide the pan back on to the heat and stir and scrape the bottom of the pan for 5–10 minutes, until the mixture thickens and looks like curd. Don’t be tempted to turn up the heat or it will scramble the eggs. The curd will cool and set further on cooling. Spoon into a sterilised jar (see above).

For lemon curd, you need a white fluffy bloomer. Slice it thickly and toast in the toaster. Butter while hot and spread on a thick dollop of lemon curd. The lemon curd will keep for four weeks in the fridge.

quick apricot jam

The secret to good apricot jam is hidden deep inside their stones. It is, of course, the apricot kernels. These small nuts exude an almon
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f, then each half into thirds, then each third in half. Carefully transfer each roll to the baking sheet: you should have 4 rows of 3. Sprinkle with the remaining almonds.

Lightly cover with cling film (plastic wrap) and rise for another 45 minutes. After 30 minutes start to preheat the oven to 180°C (350°F/Gas 4) then once the 30 minutes is up remove the cling film and bake for 20–30 minutes until golden brown. Make the glaze by stirring together all the ingredients and drizzling over da buns about 15 minutes after they come out of the oven. Serve warm.

NUTELLA ROLLS

Um, this one’s pretty self-explanatory. All the Nutella, all the rolls.

50 g (2 oz) cream cheese

205 g (⅔ cup) Nutella

icing (confectioners’) sugar, to sprinkle on top (optional)

Beat together the cream cheese and Nutella, then smear the mixture evenly over the rectangle of dough. Carefully roll up, starting from one long end of the rectangle until you’ve got a long log of dough. Slice this into 12 even rolls using a serrated knife (using light pressure and a back-and-forth sawing motion). Cut off the knobby ends, then cut the log in half, then each half into thirds, then each third in half. Transfer each roll to the baking sheet: you should have 4 rows of 3.

Lightly cover with cling film (plastic wrap) and prove for another 45 minutes. After 30 minutes preheat the oven to 180°C (350°F/Gas 4) then once the 45 minutes is up remove the cling film and bake for 20–30 minutes, until golden brown. Top with sugar, if using, and serve warm.

LEMON ROLLS

This one has spring written all over it. The flavour is super bright from all the lemon ond sort of creamy from the cream cheese. It’s kind of perfect to be honest.

230 g (8 oz) cream cheese

125 g (1 cup) icing (confectioners’) sugar, sifted

zest of 1 lemon

pinch of salt

For the glaze

125 g (1 cup) icing (confectioners’) sugar, sifted

4–6 teaspoons lemon juice pinch of salt

Using an electric mixer, beat together everything until light and fluffy. Spread this all over your dough rectangle. Carefully roll up, starting from one long end of the rectangle until you’ve got a long log of dough. Slice this into 12 even rolls using a serrated knife (using light pressure and a back-and-forth sawing motion). Cut off the knobby ends, then cut the log in half, then each half into thirds, then each third in half. Carefully transfer each roll to the baking sheet: you should have a total of 4 rows of 3.

Lightly cover with cling film (plastic wrap) and prove for another 45 minutes. After 30 minutes preheat the oven to 180°C (350°F/Gas 4) then once the 45 minutes is up remove the cling film and bake for 20–30 minutes, until golden brown.

Let the rolls cool for about 15 minutes. Make the glaze while they cool by mixing all the ingredients together and drizzling it over the top, and serve.

We all know dinner is hard; half the time I don’t even know what I’m having. That’s where this chapter comes in. Everything is simple, and most of the dishes come from things I had as a kid so we know the comfort factor is like a 10. Even if there are a couple of things that take a little longer, that just gives you more time to pre-game with tortilla chips or a cocktail.

CORIANDER PESTO

ROASTED CAULIFLOWER & PESTO PENNE

GINGER DIJON BBQ SAUCE

PULLED BBQ CHICKEN SANDWICHES WITH SESAME SLAW

GARLIC MUSIBI FRIED RICE

CALIFORNIA BURGERS

STEAK-SEASONED STEAK FRIES

BBQ CHICKEN PIZZA

BUFFALO PANZANELLA

WEEKNIGHT RAGU

GARLIC BREAD

HONEY SRIRACHA CHICKEN SKEWERS

HONEY SRIRACHA BRUSSELS SPROUTS

THE WHOLE ENCHILADA

CORIANDER PESTO

MAKES ABOUT 250 G (1 CUP)

I love a good pesto and this one is probably at the top of my list. The salty cotija and the mellow flavour of the coriander are perfect together and I almost always have some in my fridge to just put on a sandwich, or a bowl of pasta or rice. It’s a great thing to serve a crowd and that vibrant green wins over anyone. If you can’t find the cotija, you can definitely substitute Parmesan, but nothing really matches cotija.

100 g (2 cups) fresh coriander (cilantro) leaves (you can include some stem if you want)

70 g (⅔ cup) crumbled cotija cheese or Parmesan

1 garlic clove, minced or grated

juice of ½ lime

dash of hot sauce

80 ml (⅓ cup) olive oil

Throw everything except the olive oil into a blender or food processor and blend until chopped. Scrape down the sides, then, with the machine running, drizzle in olive oil and blend until it all comes together. I don’t usually add salt because the cotija tends to be pretty salty but if you’re using Parmesan, double check and season to taste. It will keep in an airtight container in the fridge for up to 2 weeks.

Now, to put it to use. I’ve got a pasta dish on the next page and these are some further options for the rest of your life:

Aioli: Mix equal p
smittel wegzuwerfen. Singles produzieren pro Kopf sogar mehr Abfall in Form von Verpackungen.

LEBENSMITTELINDUSTRIE

In der deutschen Lebensmittelindustrie schwankt die Abfallmenge zwischen 210000 und 4580000 Tonnen im Jahr.

Bei Kategorien wie Obst, Gemüse und Fleisch werden bei der Produktion mehr als 50 Prozent der Lebensmittel weggeworfen.

HERSTELLUNGSPROZESS

DAVON ABFALL, IN PROZENT

Eindosen von Fisch

30–65%

Verarbeitung von Fisch

(Filetieren, Salzen, Räuchern)

50–75%

Verarbeitung von Schalentieren

50–60%

Verarbeitung von Mollusken

20–50%

Rinderschlachtung

40–52%

Schweineschlachtung

35%

Geflügelschlachtung

31–38%

Milch-, Butter- und Sahneproduktion

vernachlässigbar

Joghurtproduktion

2–6%

Käseproduktion

85–90%

Weinproduktion

20–30%

Herstellung von Obst- und

Gemüsesäften

35–50%

Verarbeitung/Konservierung

von Obst und Gemüse

5–30%

Pflanzenölproduktion

40–70%

Maismehlproduktion

41–43%

Produktion von Kartoffelstärke

80%

Produktion von Getreidemehl

50%

Produktion von Rübenzucker

86%

Quelle: Fuentes et al., AWARENET (Agro-Food Waste Minimisation and Reduction Network), 2004

Hauptursachen für Verschwendung sind die hohe Abfallmenge, die bei der Verarbeitung der Produkte entsteht, die Überproduktion sowie das Aussortieren von Produkten, die den Qualitätsstandards hinsichtlich der typischen Eigenschaften des Produkts oder wegen defekter Verpackung nicht entsprechen.

HANDEL

Auch Supermärkte, Großmärkte und Einzelhändler spielen oft eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entstehung von Abfällen. Die meisten Produkte werden noch vor Erreichen des Verfallsdatums weggeworfen; es sind viele Faktoren, die auf die Auslese einwirken und die Produktion der riesigen Mengen noch verzehrfähiger Abfälle mitbestimmen.

Abfälle entstehen vor allem durch folgende Ursachen (Quelle: Europäische Kommission):

– Ineffiziente Verkaufskette;

– Es werden zu viele Produkte gelagert: Die Schwierigkeit bei der Vorhersage der Nachfrageentwicklung und die niedrigen Kosten für die Entsorgung der Lebensmittel drängen die Supermärkte dazu, viel zu viele Produkte auf Lager zu nehmen, die später zwangsläufig zu Abfall werden;

– Marketingstrategien: Angebote wie 2+1 drängen die Verbraucher dazu, mehr als nötig zu kaufen. Besser wäre, es gäbe derartige Angebote nur für jene Produkte, von denen zu viel auf Lager ist und deren Verfallsdatum bald erreicht ist;

– Produktstandard: Schönheitsfehler eines Produkts oder seiner Verpackung führen dazu, dass es fortgeworfen wird, ohne dass es geschmackliche oder qualitative Mängel hätte;

– Die Verderblichkeit der Produkte kann durch schlechte Transportbedingungen, Temperaturstürze oder zu intensive Lichteinstrahlung usw. beschleunigt werden.

GASTRONOMIESEKTOR

Diese Kategorie umschließt gastronomische Betriebe wie Bars, Restaurants, Take-aways, Caterings sowie Gemeinschaftsverpflegungssysteme aller Art.

Hier entstehen Abfälle vor allem durch folgende Faktoren:

– Portionen: Die Annäherung an standardisierte Portionen für alle ist einer der Hauptgründe für Lebensmittelverschwendung. Würde man es dem Konsumenten überlassen, die Größe seiner Portion zu wählen, würden unter Umständen wesentlich weniger Lebensmittel auf dem Müll landen;

– Selbstbedienung: Durchschnittlich verzehren Verbraucher in Europa nur 92 Prozent dessen, was sie auf ihrem Teller haben. Besser wäre es, die Vermeidung von Tellerresten durch einen Aufpreis oder Preisnachlässe anzukurbeln;

– Büfetts: Das Problem ist dasselbe wie bei der Selbstbedienung; an den Büfetts, die es zu bestimmten Anlässen wie beispielsweise Hochzeiten, gibt, neigt man nicht nur dazu, mehr als sonst zu essen, sondern man häuft sich auch mehr auf den Teller, als man essen kann. Außerdem ist es bei Büfetts sehr schwierig, für jeden die richtige Menge vorzubereiten, was unweigerlich zu einer Überproduktion und somit zu Essensresten und -abfällen führt; Gastronomiebetriebe wissen zu wenig über die Umweltproblematiken, die mit der erhöhten Produktion organischer Abfälle zusammenhängen. Zur Verringerung von Lebensmittelabfällen im Gastronomiesektor wäre es wünschenswert, dass die Kunden öfter vorbestellen. Dann könnten die Restaurants nämlich genauer voraussehen, wie viele Gerichte sie zubereiten müssen. Außerdem wäre es gut, wenn Restaurants ihre Gäste ermutigen würden, die bestellten, übrig gebliebenen Speisen mit nach Hause zu nehmen – eine Praktik, die in Deutschland wie auch in anderen Ländern noch zu wenig verbreitet ist. Und schließlich wäre es gut, wenn Mensen qualitätsvollere Mahlzeiten anbieten und den Schülern bzw. Studenten auf diese Weise den Wert von Nahrungsmitteln vermitteln würden.

Die Folgen der Verschwendung

Die Vergeudung von Lebensmitteln entlang der Nahrungsmit

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