Lazy Cook’s Guide To Making Good Food by David Duncan [pdf, epub | 435,58 Kb] ISBN: B00N11O49S

  • Full Title: Lazy Cook’s Guide To Making Good Food
  • Autor: David Duncan
  • Print Length: 80 pages
  • Publisher: 
  • Publication Date: August 24, 2014
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: B00N11O49S
  • ISBN-13: 
  • Download File Format | Size: pdf, epub | 435,58 Kb
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Directions

Lazy Cook’s Guide To Making Good Food

This Guide Will Help You:

• Make delicious food with minimum ingredients that’s easy and convenient
• Learn how to cook the perfect steak and roast chicken without relying on recipes
• Learn the art of making delicious ice cream that rivals those of premium ice cream.

Here are some of the recipes that you’ll find in this book:

Crazy Good Baked Asparagus
Granita
Ultimate Rib Eye Steak
Grilled Sirloin Steak
Baked Cauliflower
Buttered Cauliflower
Buttered Asparagus
Real Vanilla Ice Cream
Kale Chips
Basic Cheese Omelet
Baked Snap Peas
Stir-fried Squash
Basil Tomato and Ricotta Salad
Easy Pickles
Easy Garlic Bread
Tartar Sauce
Stir-fried Red Cabbage
Bacon-wrapped Asparagus
Brussel Sprouts with Pancetta
Buttered Carrots
Baked Chili Potato
Stir-fried Button Mushrooms
Basic Fruit Salad

A Personal Note From the Author

You do not need a complicated list of ingredients to make good food. I created this book with this idea in mind. You’ll learn how to make delicious food that you can cook everyday and tweak according to your tastes. You’ll find versatile recipes that you can easily master. And when you’re done reading, you’ll realize that all it takes is a few tools and a little know-how to make delicious food with minimal ingredients.

 

Editorial Reviews

 

Keywords

abulous Italian Meals and Italian Cuisine

The Slow Cooker Meals And Crock Pot Recipes Collection

By Pamela Kazmierczak

Copyright Information:

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the express written permission of the author.

Copyright October 2012 by Pamela Kazmierczak

Introduction

Pizza Pasta

Meaty Lasagna

Vegetarian Lasagna

Chicken Parmesan

Eggplant Parmesan

Chicken Fettuccine Alfredo

Loaded Bruschetta

Tuscan Beef Stew

Osso Bucco

Italian Pot Roast

Scallops in Tomato Sauce

Ham and Cheese Pasta

Turkey and Artichokes Over Elbow Pasta

Tarragon Chicken Over Angel Hair Pasta

Escarole and Cannellini Italian Soup

Spinach Risotto

Asparagus and Parmesan Risotto

Pepper Risotto

Shrimp Risotto

Pasta Marinara

Cipollinis and Artichoke Sauce Over Penne Pasta

Agrodolce Stew

Tomato Florentine Soup

Pasta Fazool

Garlic and Parsley Pasta

Spicy Onion Penne

Four-Cheese Stuffed Lasagna Cups

Eggplant and Spinach Over Spiral Noodles

Crab and Corn Pasta

Pesto Chicken Shells

Italian Chicken Breasts

Pasta Pockets

Ravioli Marinara

Sausage Rigatoni

Chicken Tortellini

Author Page

One Last Thing:

Introduction

Welcome to the first volume of the Slow Cooker Meals and The Crock Pot Recipes Collection. Inside this volume you will find a variety of family favorites to choose from.

This is the Italian edition – meaning the meals are perfect for when you want a little Italian treat or a full blown meal. You can choose from pastas, soups, stews and more.

I understand that it can be difficult to find great meals that everyone will enjoy that are quick and easy to prepare. Using a slow cooker can greatly cut down on your prep time. This is the perfect book for someone who wants to enjoy Italian cuisine whenever they want, even when they will be away from the home during the day.

I hope that this recipe book will help you find some choices that you and your family will love!

Pizza Pasta

This recipe is sure to delight every diner.

Ingredients:

1 package of linguine

1 tablespoon of olive oil

1 pound of ground turkey

16 ounce jar of tomato sauce

½ onion, chopped

1 cup of bell peppers

1 cup of mushrooms

1 cup of pepperonis

4 cups of mozzarella cheese

Directions:

Boil the linguine according to the package’s directions or until the pasta is al dente. Drain and set aside. Heat the oil in a pan over medium heat and brown the ground turkey.

Add the tomato sauce, mushrooms, onion, and bell pepper. Spray the slow cooker insert with a nonstick cooking spray.

Ladle in one-fourth of the meat sauce, then one-fourth of the linguine, one-fourth of the pepperonis, and 1 cup of cheese. Repeat the layers until the ingredients are used. Cover and cook on low for four hours.

Serving Suggestion:

Rotate different meats and vegetables for a different “pizza” every time.

Meaty Lasagna

There’s no reason to sweat over how long it takes to make traditional lasagna. Prepare this dish the night before and refrigerate it in your slow cooker’s inner dish. The next day, put the dish back in the slow cooker and turn it on.

Ingredients:

1 pound of ground beef

½ pound of Italian sausage

2 tablespoons of garlic, minced

16 ounce jar of tomato sauce

1 package of fresh lasagna sheets

2 cups of mozzarella cheese

2 cups of parmesan cheese

1 egg

1 tablespoon of dried oregano

Directions:

Brown the ground beef and sausage in a lightly oiled pan over medium-high heat. Stir in the garlic. Drain any excess grease and add the tomato sauce. Remove from heat and set aside. Combine mozzarella, parmesan, egg, and oregano. Stir the mixture well.

Coat the inside of the slow cooker dish with a nonstick spray. Use kitchen scissors to cut the lasagna sheets to fit inside the slow cookers. Ladle one-fourth of the meat mixture into the bottom of the dish, then place a pasta sheet on top. Spoon one-fourth of the cheese sauce on top of the pasta sheet.

Repeat this pattern, ending with cheese sauce on top, until the slow cooker is full of layers and the meat and cheese mixtures are used completely.

Cook on low for five hours.

Serving Suggestion:

Replace the ground beef and Italian sausage with turkey or soy substitutes for a healthier option.

Vegetarian Lasagna

Cater to the vegetarians in your clan without breaking a sweat with this crock pot variation on and Italian classic.

Ingredients:

2 tablespoons of olive oil

1 pound of eggplant, diced

½ onion, diced

2 cups of mushrooms, diced

1 cup of black olives, halved

16
chinese take out menu, homemade cake, fruit cake, thai delivery near me, pizza hut number,
er had turned to vinegar—and it was delicious. In fact, it tasted better than the cider I had started with.

Motivated to try my hand at making other vinegars, I begged my friends at the Brooklyn Brewery for five gallons of just-finished beer to make my own malt vinegar. Real vinegar made from good beer was a revelation. Unlike most of the commercial malt varieties, which are made from malted barley or corn and get their color from caramel, my malt vinegar was complex, earthy, toasty, malty and tangy. It mimicked the flavors of the original brew—and was a perfect accompaniment for everything from seltzer to fries. I’ve been experimenting making other vinegars ever since (spruce, fruit, wine, foraged berries, melon, and more), and now more than ten years and dozens of vinegars later, I still get a thrill from a finished batch. You start with something so seemingly normal and, through what feels like culinary alchemy, it turns into a delicious and satisfying ingredient.

THE SOUR PROCESS

Vinegar is the next naturally occurring step in the fermentation process after you make beverages like beer and wine. When the alcohol in these delicious drinks comes into contact with a microorganism called acetobacter and there’s oxygen present, the bacteria consume the ethanol and produce acetic acid, which is the sour component in vinegar. It may sound complicated, but it’s a very easy process. Even better, acetobacters are found just about anywhere in the environment. They collect and prosper in places where ethanol naturally occurs, such as when wild yeasts colonize the nectar in flowers or the skins of rotting fruits and begin fermenting the sugars into alcohol.

Though the word vinegar derives from the French for “sour wine,” vinegar can be made from much more than wine. Fruit Vinegar uses a traditional method that’s especially popular in warm climates, and it’s a great way to turn your scraps into something sublime. Alongside the classic wine vinegars, you’ll find unusual ones made from sorghum, persimmon, tomato, maple syrup, ramps, grapefruit, or honey. If people can eat it or drink it and it has sugar, then it can be made into vinegar. The key ingredient you need to make great vinegar is a sugary or alcoholic base. But remember that acetobacters need more than just the ethanol to make the conversion of alcohol into acetic acid; other minerals and nutrients are required. The carbohydrates, sugars, tannins, and nutrients in wine and beer help the bacteria thrive. Darker beers, red wines, meads, and ciders, which have more nutrients and tannins, tend to make better vinegars more easily and stand up to the variances present in home fermentation. More subtle white wine and sake usually work well, too, but they may require some tweaking and experimentation to get your fermentations exactly right.

THE MOTHER

Just as our mothers are often the most important people in our lives, the same can be said for vinegar making. What we call the vinegar mother is a collection of slimy cellulose that forms at the intersection of the base liquid and the air. It’s a by-product of the bacteria converting the alcohol into acetic acid—and a good thing! Think of it as a visual cue that the conversion of the main ingredient into “live” vinegar is actually happening. In most cases, your homemade vinegar will develop a sizable mother, which only increases as you start making larger batches. A five-gallon batch will often yield two-plus pounds of mother.

Keep your mother healthy; you don’t want her to drown. She should float on top and be uniform thickness and rubbery to the touch. Over time she may have babies that grow on top as she starts to sink. When that happens, you’ll want to pull out any mother that sinks and either start a new batch of vinegar or give a piece of it to your friends as a starter.

Mother will continue to grow on healthy vinegar; if you leave a jar long enough, the vinegar will evaporate leaving a jar full of mother and her babies—and they’ll just keep growing. So it’s important to pour off and bottle your vinegar for use once it’s completely acidified.

TASTING VINEGAR

Whether you’re sampling your own homemade vinegar or are in the market for a quality bottle, you’ll want to know what to look for when taste testing. (Wine vinegars can cost $40 a liter or more at the store; for the price of one decent bottle of wine you can make more than a liter of top-notch vinegar for under $15.) Quality vinegar should taste bright, with the acid clear on your tongue and in the back of your throat, especially with stronger vinegars. Because acid can burn you, don’t take a shot of vinegar without first tasting a small sip to see how it feels. The smell and flavor should be reminiscent of the vinegar’s base—sherry vinegar should taste like sherry, red wine vinegar like red wine, et cetera. Try a blind
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The package weight for many double-layer cake mixes ranges from 15.25 to 18 ounces, especially for common flavors such as yellow, chocolate, and vanilla cake. The national brands, including Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, and Duncan Hines, and many of the store brands generally seem to fall within this range. This is the weight range we used for testing these recipes. Some specific flavors range in weight from 16 to 19 ounces. When selecting a cake mix, we recommend using one of approximately the same weight as listed in the recipe. The exact weight of the mix varies with the brand and the flavor, and we have found that slight deviations do not affect the outcome.

Cake mixes with pudding in the mix (often labeled “extra moist”) and those without pudding work equally well. Use either type of cake mix for the poke cake recipes in this book. If the poke cake recipe you are using recommends beating the cake mix with a pudding mix, and your cake mix lists that it has pudding in it, go ahead and include the separate package of pudding mix just as the recipe recommends.

Can you interchange flavors? Sure, but we recommend you choose a similar flavor for the best results. For example, if the recipe lists devil’s food cake and you choose to use a chocolate cake mix, the poke cake recipe will work fine. Similarly, yellow cake mix and white cake mix can be interchanged with good results.

You will spot several brands of cake mix on the grocery store shelf; experiment a little to determine which you enjoy the most.

Stock up on the cake mixes when they are on sale. Be sure to double check the date code and use the cake mixes before they expire.

Make your own cake—without using a mix.

For some cakes, we begin the recipe with a cake mix and then list eggs, water, and oil as directed on the cake mix box. Go ahead and make the cake following the package directions. For others, we started with a cake mix and added flavor with such additions as buttermilk, sour cream, fruit juice, or other ingredients. They are very tasty—but you are always welcome to prepare the cake just as the box recommends without the flavor enhancements.

Gluten-free cake mixes can be used. Prepare the mixes as directed, then follow the poke cake recipe for the toppings or poke-and-pour portions. Many gluten-free cake mixes are designed to make one (8-or 9-inch) layer cake, so to make a 9 x 13-inch cake, make two boxes of cake mix and double all the ingredients listed on the box. The baking time may have to be extended by about 5 minutes for the larger cake; the cake is done when a wooden pick inserted into the center comes out clean. For specific information on baking with a gluten-free mix, contact the company. You may want to experiment with various brands to find the ones you prefer. Be sure the other ingredients for the poke cake are also gluten free. (See the variation for a gluten-free yellow cake.)

{ Eggs }

The recipes were tested using large eggs. Results will not be consistent if you use medium or jumbo eggs or egg substitutes.

{ Milk and Other Liquids: }

Milk is often used in the recipes, and for optimum flavor, use regular whole dairy milk. In a pinch, 2% or reduced-fat milk can be used.

We love the tang of buttermilk. If you don’t have buttermilk on hand, pour 1 tablespoon distilled white vinegar or lemon juice into a 1-cup measure and add milk to equal 1 cup. Allow it to stand for a few minutes, then measure out the volume you need for the recipe you are preparing.

{ Oil }

For baking, choose flavorless “neutral” oils, like canola, corn, or vegetable oil, and save those oils with a distinctive flavor like olive oil or walnut oil for other cooking tasks.

{ Pecans, Walnuts, and Other Nuts }

Toasting pecans, walnuts, almonds, or other nuts intensifies their flavor. To toast nuts, spread them out in a single layer on a rimmed baking sheet. Toast in a preheated 350ºF for 5 to 7 minutes or until lightly toasted.

{ Whipped Topping or Whipped Cream }

Which do you prefer? We use both and if used as the frosting on top of a cake, the choice is up to you. One (8-ounce) tub frozen whipped topping, thawed, equals a little more than 3 cups. To achieve about that same volume, To substitute whipped cream and achieve about that same volume, whip 1½ cups of heavy cream until stiff peaks form.

To whip heavy cream, chill a large, deep bowl in the freezer along with the beaters for your mixer (chilling the bowl and beaters helps the cream stiffen more quickly). Pour the cream into the chilled bowl. To keep splatters to a minimum, using a handheld mixer, begin beating on low speed, then gradually increase the speed to medium-high. Gradually beat in about 2 tablespoons confectioners’ sugar per cup of cream, or sweeten to taste and beat until the cream ho
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We’ll make small, seemingly insignificant tweaks to your overall lifestyle that may not bring you results right away—but they will make a big difference as you go through the month. That’s because these thirty Changes will have a cumulative effect on your life. By the end of the program, you will be leading a healthier lifestyle, feeling more fit and active, sleeping better and moving better—all without feeling like it was too much effort.

One final thing before you start: You may notice that this program isn’t as precise as many you may have tried. The truth is, you don’t have to overcomplicate changing your life by counting calories, carbs, grams, pounds, percentages… and other things that make your head hurt. Too often, I see experts put together complex diets and exercise programs that ask you to eat 20 percent of this type of food, or count exactly this number of calories at exactly this time of day.

Not here. Not in my book.

I promise no math, no brain bruising, and no calculations.

Good?

Let’s start.

The Right Way to Count Your Change

Most diet/fitness/lifestyle books waste your time with so many studies using so many big words and so many pages before you get some information that you’ve lost interest before ever getting started.

My job—whether I’m working one-on-one training someone at the gym or working one-on-millions on TV—isn’t explaining the whos, wheres, or whats. It’s to briefly explain the whys, then get right to the hows, so that whoever I’m speaking to can get started today.

What You’ll Find in Each Chapter

Simply Put…

Nothing annoys me more than when I have to read through eighteen pages of fluff just to find out the author is asking me to eat more vegetables. It’s a waste of time, because all I want to know is what I need to do, so I can start doing it right away.

That’s why each chapter starts with a short paragraph called Simply Put. It’s basically my point for that entire chapter in a nutshell, so that you never have to comb through countless pages trying to figure out exactly what I’m asking of you.

Don’t Stop There…

Some of the thirty Changes are fine on their own, while others can sometimes be taken to a whole different level—if you’re up to it. Whenever that’s the case, this is the section that will steer you in the right direction.

Tips and Tricks

Let’s face it, we all need them. They’re fun, they fit in your pocket—they’re handy little life hacks that can help guide you along the often bumpy path you’re about to embark on. As long as you do each little Change, you’re set. But you can still use these tips and tricks to help get you there faster. So feel free to use all or some (or none) if they keep you moving forward.

The “So You Know” Science

Even though I’m a trainer, an exercise expert, and formerly the Today show’s lifestyle and fitness correspondent, I wouldn’t expect you to take my word on everything I’m advising you to change about your life. As a journalist, I know when the details can make the difference, and that’s what this section is all about.

Don’t worry—you won’t find them in every chapter. You’ll find these short but sweet nuggets of information only among Changes where knowing a little bit extra may be to your benefit. You can choose to ignore them, educate yourself by reading them, or impress your friends with your ever-growing knowledge of fitness, diet, and health.

The Only Rules to Remember

Rule #1: Once You Learn Each Change, Don’t Stop Doing It as You Move Forward

All thirty Changes add up to a healthier you. Each one becomes something you’ll start to do every day. Once you feel comfortable adapting to it, you can move on to the next. But to see the most results, you can’t slack off. In the early chapters, the Changes can be easier to follow because you’ve learned only a handful. But the further you move through the book, it can sometimes be tricky to keep track, and I don’t want you to let any Changes learned earlier fall to the side and be forgotten.

That’s why each Change chapter starts with “Simply Put.” Each day, you can quickly scroll through the book and be reminded of what you need to do, just in case that Change hasn’t become second nature to you just yet.

Rule #2: Please Do Them in Order

The goal of this book—and the reason you’re reading it in the first place—is to change your life. To make this plan as successful as possible for you, I put the thirty Changes in an order that works for your mind, your body, and your soul. The Changes are in an order that will not only ease you into the next Change but help you stick with all thirty long after we’ve finished this journey together.

Could you skip around and start with Change #3, then do Change #8, come back to Change #2, and then try Change #23? Theoretically I guess you could. But when you were young, would it have been smart to
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read slices, cut into 1-inch pieces

1. Heat a large skillet over medium- high heat. Add half of

11⁄2 cups shredded Cheddar

the bacon and cook until crisp, stirring frequently. Drain on 11⁄2 cups shredded Monterey Jack or

paper towels and discard the drippings. Cook the remain-

Pepper Jack

ing bacon, drain, and crumble.

8 eggs

2. Heat the butter in a medium skillet over medium heat un-

2 cups milk

til melted. Add the onions and cook, stirring frequently, un-1⁄2 teaspoon chili powder

til translucent, about 4 minutes. Stir in the roasted peppers and chiles. Remove from the heat and set aside.

3. Grease a 13 × 9- inch glass baking pan. Arrange the bread TIPS FROM OUR TEST KITCHEN

cubes in the bottom of the pan. Sprinkle the crumbled ba-

con and cheeses over the bread cubes.

This is ideal when serving buff et

style. It holds its heat and fl avor for

4. Whisk the eggs in a large bowl until well beaten. Add the a long time.

milk and chili powder; mix well. Stir in the onion mixture.

Pour evenly over the top of the casserole. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 3 hours or overnight.

5. Remove the casserole from the refrigerator and let stand

for 30 minutes.

6. Preheat the oven to 300°F. Remove the plastic wrap and

bake for 60 to 70 minutes until the center is set. Let stand for 10 minutes before serving.

Breakfasts

13

Wake- Up Casserole

Serves 8 to 12

Marsha Baker, Pioneer, Ohio

8 frozen hash brown patties

“For our family Easter brunch, I substituted frozen

4 cups shredded Colby- Jack or Cheddar

hash brown patties for bread slices and we all just

2 cups cubed ham

loved it. It’s very simple and can be made the night

7 eggs

before.”

1 cup whole milk

1⁄4 to 1⁄2 teaspoon salt

1. Preheat the oven to 350°F. Grease a 13 x 9- inch nonstick 1⁄2 teaspoon dry mustard

metal cake pan.

2. Arrange the hash brown patties over the bottom of the

prepared pan. Sprinkle the cheese and ham evenly over the

TIPS FROM OUR TEST KITCHEN

patties.

You may substitute sausage or bacon

3. Whisk the eggs in a medium bowl until well blended. Stir

for the ham, if desired.

in the milk, salt, and mustard; mix well. Pour the egg mix-

ture evenly over the cheese and ham.

4. Cover with foil and bake for 1 hour. Remove the foil and

bake for 15 minutes longer, or until the edges are golden and a knife inserted near the center comes out clean.

14 Hometown Recipes for the Holidays

Apple Pecan French Toast

Serves 4 to 6

Barbara Schindler, Napoleon, Ohio

4 eggs

“Because this recipe is made the night before serv-

1 cup milk

ing, it’s great for busy people.”

1⁄4 cup sugar

1⁄4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

1. Combine the eggs, milk, sugar, cinnamon, apple, and va-

1 medium Jonathan or McIntosh apple,

nilla in a medium mixing bowl; stir to combine.

peeled and shredded

2. Coat the bottom of a 12 x 8- inch glass baking dish with

1⁄2 teaspoon vanilla extract

nonstick cooking spray or brush with melted butter. Ar-

Nonstick cooking spray or melted butter

range the bread slices in a single layer in the pan. Pour the 1 loaf French bread, cut into twelve

egg mixture over the bread. Turn the bread slices over to

1- inch slices

coat the other side. Cover the pan with plastic wrap and re-

1⁄2 cup chopped pecans

frigerate overnight.

2 tablespoons melted butter

3. When ready to serve, preheat the oven to 425°F. Remove

Maple syrup

the pan from the refrigerator and remove the plastic wrap.

Sprinkle the pecans over the top and drizzle with the melted butter. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes until the bread slices puff.

Serve with maple syrup.

Breakfasts

15

Apricot- and Blueberry- Stuffed

French Toast

Serves 6

Trisha Kruse, Ea gle, Idaho

1 cup sliced fresh or canned apricots

“I grew up eating this special breakfast on Christmas

1 cup fresh or frozen blueberries, thawed

morning. We filled plates with this wonderful French

and drained on paper towels

toast and opened our presents while we ate. I recall

2 tablespoons sugar

the warmth and excitement of those occasions much

One 8- ounce package cream cheese

more than the gifts. Now I make this every Christmas

1⁄2 cup apricot preserves

morning at my house.”

3 eggs

2⁄3 cup half- and- half

1. Preheat the oven to 300°F.

2 tablespoons honey

2. Combine the apricots, blueberries, and sugar in a small

2 teaspoons vanilla extract

bowl. Combine the cream cheese and preserves in a medi-

12 slices thick white bread

um micro wave- safe bowl and heat on high for 30 to 40 sec-

1⁄4 cup (1⁄2 stick) butter

onds to soften the cream cheese and slightly melt the pre-

3⁄4 cup vanilla yogurt, optional

serves. Whisk until well blended.

3. Whisk the
llner

11.1 Introduction

284

11.2 Recombinant Food Allergens

285

11.3 Physicochemical Analysis of Recombinant Food

286

Allergens

11.4 Immunological Analyses of Recombinant Food

327

Allergens

11.5 Recombinant Food Allergens for Diagnosis

330

11.5.1 Peanut

332

11.5.2 Tree Nuts and Seeds

333

11.5.3 Fruits and Vegetables

334

11.5.4 Wheat

335

11.5.5 Soy

335

11.5.6 Fish

336

11.5.7 Shellfish

336

11.6 Recombinant Food Allergens for Allergy Therapy

337

11.7 Conclusions

341

Acknowledgements

341

References

342

xv

Food Allergy: Molecular and Clinical Practice

12. peanut Allergy: Biomolecular Characterization for

351

development of a peanut T-Cell Epitope peptide Therapy

Jennifer M. Rolland, Sara R. Prickett and Robyn E. O’Hehir

12.1 Introduction

352

12.2 Clinical Features of Peanut Allergy

353

12.3 The Mucosal Immune Response to Peanut Allergens

354

12.4 Allergenic Components of Peanut

355

12.5 Biochemical Properties of Peanut Allergens

357

12.6 Specific Immunotherapy for Peanut Allergy

358

12.7 Development of a SPIRE Therapy

359

12.7.1 Rationale for SPIRE Therapy

359

12.7.2 Validation of Allergen SPIRE Therapeutics in

361

Clinical Trials

12.7.3 Mechanisms of Action of Allergen SPIRE

361

Therapy

12.8 Design of a SPIRE Therapeutic for Peanut Allergy

363

12.8.1 Mapping T-cell Epitopes of Major Peanut

364

Allergens

12.8.2 Determination of HLA-II Molecules which

365

Present Peptides to T cells

12.8.3 Refinement of Peptides for Ease of

365

Production and Solubility, Confirmation

of T-Cell Reactivity and Lack of IgE-mediated

Basophil Activation

12.9 Conclusions

366

Acknowledgements

367

References

367

Index

373

xvi

1

Biomolecular and Clinical

Aspects of Food Allergy

Heimo Breiteneder

CONTENTS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Prolamin Superfamily

1.2.1 Prolamins

1.2.2 Bifunctional Inhibitors

1.2.3 2S Albumins

1.2.4 Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Proteins (nsLTPs)

1.3 Cupin Superfamily

1.3.1 Vicilins (7S globulins)

1.3.2 Legumins (11S globulins)

1.4 EF-hand Superfamily

1.4.1 Parvalbumins

1.5 Tropomyosin-like Superfamily

1.6 Profilin-like Superfamily

1.7 Bet v 1-like Superfamily

1.8 The Casein and the Casein Kappa Family

Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

E-mail: [email protected]

1

Food Allergy: Molecular and Clinical Practice

1.9 Calycin-like Superfamily

1.9.1 Lipocalins

1.10 Conclusions

Acknowledgement

References

1.1 IntroductIon

Allergenic proteins are able to elicit Th2-polarized immune responses

in predisposed individuals. As compared to the presently known

number of protein architectures, allergenic proteins can be classified

into a highly limited number of protein families (Radauer et al. 2008a).

Version 30.0 of the protein family database Pfam (http://pfam.

xfam.org/) describes 16,306 protein families (Finn et al. 2014). The structural database of allergenic proteins (SDAP; http://fermi.utmb.

edu/) (Ivanciuc et al. 2003) assigns all allergens to 130 Pfam families.

The most important plant and animal food allergens can be found

in eight protein superfamilies discussed below. Our understanding

why exactly these proteins are able to induce a specific IgE response

in certain individuals is still incomplete. Allergenic proteins seem to

be able to modulate the communication between innate and adaptive

immune cells by interacting with pattern recognition receptors,

which results in a Th2 polarization of the adaptive immune response

(Karp 2010, Platts-Mills and Woodfolk 2011, Pulendran et al. 2010,

Ruiter and Shreffler 2012, Willart and Hammad 2010, Wills-Karp

2010). Recent discoveries have shown that group 2 innate lymphoid

cells are able to translate epithelial cell-derived alarmins into

downstream adaptive type-2 responses (Scanlon and McKenzie

2015).

The toxin hypothesis of allergy has now gained interest and offers

an alternative understanding of why certain proteins are targeted by

IgE (Palm et al. 2012, Tsai et al. 2015). This hypothesis offers plausible

explanations for allergenic components of insect venoms, proteins

that have been altered by environmental toxins or proteins that carry

ligands that present a certain danger to a host’s cells. Why only few of

the individuals who are exposed to the allergen raise an IgE response

2

Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects of Food Allergy

is most likely r

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