[pdf | 15,15 Mb] Great Italian American Food in New England by John F. Carafoli – online library

  • Full Title : Great Italian American Food in New England: History, Traditions & Memories
  • Autor: John F. Carafoli
  • Print Length: 232 pages
  • Publisher: Globe Pequot Press
  • Publication Date: August 15, 2016
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 149301644X
  • ISBN-13: 978-1493016440
  • Download File Format | Size: pdf | 15,15 Mb
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Explore the Italian enclaves in New England and the evolution of Italian-American cuisine through profiles of the people, places, and communities and interviews with local chefs, pizzeria owners, butchers, and specialty shops purveyors. Alongside these stories is a mix of historical and modern photos as well as classic recipes passed down through generations and from establishments that still thrive today. Part historical record, part travelogue, part cookbook, Great Italian American Food in New England is fascinating glimpse into the regions rich Italian heritage.

 

Editorial Reviews

About the Author

John F. Carafoli is an international food stylist, consultant, food writer and wrote the seminal book Food Photography and Styling, two children’s cookbooks, Look Who’s Cooking, The Cookie Cookbook and Cape Cod Chef’s Table, Recipes from Buzzards Bay to Provincetown. He has been published in Gastronomica, The Journal of Food and Culture, The New York Times, The Boston Globe, Edible Cape Cod where he won an EDDY for Best use of Recipes in a feature and has been profiled in the Italian publication of ER (Emilia Romagna). In addition to presenting papers at the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery in England, he has organized the biannual International Conference on Food Styling and Photography at Boston University. Carafoli was also featured on the TV Food network’s Ultimate Kitchens, and NPR. He also conducts culinary food, music and culture tours to Italy. Carafoli lives in West Barnstable MA and can be found in the waters during the winter months gathering fresh oysters and clams. Visit him at www.carafoli.com.

 

Keywords

a Lane

Dessert for Two

Comfort and Joy

This book is for you. Yes, you. You who hunts down mini bakeware, you who doesn’t want tempting leftovers, and you who delights in the simplicity of a small cake rather than a giant three-layer one. You get me. I do it all for you.

I mean, I get to eat the desserts too, so let’s call it a win-win.

I love you more than butter, sugar, and flour.

CONTENTS

Introduction

Ingredients Guide

Equipment You Will Need

MINI BAKING SHEET

CLASSIC LOAF PAN

MUFFIN PAN

RAMEKINS & SMALL JARS

THE 6-INCH ROUND CAKE PAN

THE 8-INCH SQUARE PAN

Any Leftover Eggs?

Acknowledgments

Index

Introduction

I wrote this book in four-hour increments. When I wrote the first Dessert for Two, I was child-free.

And now, well, I have a baby and two dogs. Finding the time to write this book was challenging, but I knew it was a worthwhile pursuit. I wanted to do it for you.

I still love baking desserts for two, because we still eat dessert for two. Yes, I’m one of those parents withholding sugar from my kid for as long as possible. I know how ridiculous

it is, trust me: I was never allowed junk food or dessert as a kid and, well, my career

choice speaks for itself, doesn’t it?

So, for the most part, this small family still only needs small desserts. This time around, though, I included a chapter at the end with desserts that fit in an 8-inch pan, for slightly more than two servings. The truth is, now that I have the world’s most adorable child (heh), we have a lot more visitors these days, and I’m so happy to make larger desserts to feed

just a few more than two people.

For the most part, though, this is another small-batch dessert cookbook for you. I divided

the chapters by pan size, so you can make one quick run to the hobby store, gather all of

your mini pans, and come home and bake everything to your heart’s content.

You’ll notice some slightly healthier desserts here. You’re shocked, I know. I included

some light, fruit-centered desserts because I just don’t think there’s anything better than a dessert made with ripe, local, seasonal fruit. I also ventured into the world of “naturally sweetened” desserts. I did this mainly for my daughter. She’s getting to the age where she

wants whatever Mom and Dad are eating. I try to meet her demands/tantrums with

desserts made with maple syrup, honey, and coconut sugar. Sugar is sugar, yes, but it

lessens the mom guilt. (Anything that lessens mom guilt is a very good thing.)

I’m so happy you’re here again, and I couldn’t be more proud to share more small-batch

desserts with you.

As always, I’m pretty easy to find on the Internet, and I absolutely love it when you reach out to me with requests. I’ll always be here, scaling down giant desserts to more

manageable portions. It’s just what I was put on this earth to do.

Love and (a small batch of) cupcakes,

Christina

Ingredients Guide

Butter is my sidekick. I frequently indulge in rich, European butter because I’m a woman who would rather shop at the grocery store than the mall. That said, I tested all of these

recipes with regular, store-brand butter to be sure they would work. American butter

typically has a higher water content than imported butter, but you’re safe using either for my recipes. The best way to soften butter is to leave it on the counter for two hours. If you’re in a rush (or just impatient like me), slice the butter into small pieces and leave it on the

counter for 20 minutes. Softened butter is just one notch above room temperature. You can

press your finger into it and make an indentation, but it is not overly soft or droopy. You finger should not go all the way through, and you should most definitely not use melted

butter when a recipe calls for softened butter. To be more clear: do not use the microwave

to soften butter. Do what I do: chop it small and let it rest while you gather and prepare the ingredients for the recipe.

Flour is always bleached, all-purpose.

Refrigerated premade pie dough helps me put the “simple” in Sweet & Simple. I think every pie I ever ate growing up was made with pie dough from the red box. I have a soft

spot for it in my heart, but if you want to make your own crust, check my recipe for

Strawberry Hand Pies (page 32).

Cornstarch might be a new ingredient in your kitchen. I use it to make cakes super fluffy (especially the Angel Food Jam Cake, page 48), and to thicken fruit fillings in pies.

Sugar is always white, granulated sugar, unless it specifically says brown sugar. There was a time when I always used light brown sugar in desserts, but recently I’ve ventured

over to the dark side—dark brown sugar is rocking my world. The only difference between light and dark brown sugar is additional molasses. If you love spice and smoky molasses as

much as me, more of it
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has taken place as many once-inaccessible archives have opened their doors to outside scholars.

One cannot imagine a better constellation of scholar-performers for the present project. Christoph Wolff, preeminent Bach expert and author of the monumental biography Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician, and Markus Zepf, organ specialist and diligent researcher, form a formidable team of authors. Lynn Edwards Butler, organ scholar and former longtime director of the Westfield Center, is a skilled translator with a broad knowledge of historical organ practices and terminology. All three are experienced organists, familiar with early instruments through performance and examination. Indeed, they have played most of the extant organs described here and are familiar with their features firsthand.

Favorable for this undertaking, too, is the long-standing connection between the American Bach Society and the University of Illinois Press, publisher of Bach Perspectives. The opportunity to work with the seasoned and supportive UIP team of Willis Regier, director, and Laurie Matheson, senior acquisitions editor, allowed the project to move forward in a smooth and fruitful way.

It is the hope of the American Bach Society that The Organs of J. S. Bach will serve as a useful reference book for organists, Bach scholars and devotees, and general music enthusiasts. Containing a great deal of information in a portable form, it is envisioned not only as a vade mecum for the personal library, but as a travel companion for the suitcase, as well—a guidebook whose stop lists and color photographs, especially, whet one’s appetite to observe, hear, and play the extant instruments described therein.

Bach was first and foremost an organist. He won youthful fame through his virtuoso performances and extensive knowledge of organ building. The earliest extant examples of his handwriting are tablature copies of organ music by Buxtehude and Reinken, and his final years show him publishing and revising organ chorales. From the beginning to the end of his life, he was engaged with organ music and the examination, inauguration, and design of new instruments. May the present survey, set forth in English for the first time, serve as a friendly and informative guide to the instrument whose playing, as Quantz put it, “was brought to its greatest perfection” by Johann Sebastian Bach.

George B. Stauffer

General Editor, American Bach Society

Preface to the English Edition

It is almost sixty years since the appearance of Werner David’s excellent book Johann Sebastian Bach’s Orgeln (Berlin, 1951). Out of print since the 1960s and not available in many music libraries, David’s study was the first to offer a conveniently referenced overview of the instruments that were important to the organist and organ expert Johann Sebastian Bach. In the decades since then, however, the state of our knowledge has changed considerably. Not only have additional instruments been identified with which Bach had direct or indirect contact, but also very detailed information regarding the organs themselves is now available. For these reasons, a reworking of the material presented in such exemplary fashion by David has long been overdue, especially since no study has replaced it. Finally, and not least, the numerous tours now being undertaken to historical Bach organs in what used to be a region largely cut off by the Iron Curtain of the Cold War period make the need for such an updated, expanded, and reliable guide all the more obvious.

Like David’s book in its time, the present handbook attempts to present the current state of knowledge. To this end, additional new materials have been gathered, assessed, and organized into a comprehensive handbook. The format has been expanded to include not only the instruments played by Bach, presented alphabetically by location with appropriate biographical and organological material, but also the so-called reference organs. The latter, whose selection is limited to instruments from Bach’s narrowest circle, have a significance that should not be underestimated, both with respect to rounding out the theme of the book and to generally broadening our understanding of Bach’s organ world. Like David, we have included Bach’s examination reports and testimonials, since only these afford a concrete look at what was, for Bach, an essential activity as organ expert and examiner. In addition, emphasis has been placed on the contributions and significance of individual organ builders, especially those with whom Bach had close contact—an aspect not treated by David.

I first made plans to write this book in the 1960s in connection with my organ study at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin. I was first encouraged by discussions with Michael Schneider, my organ teacher and fatherly friend. Since then my understanding of historical organs has been significantly enl
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will be released from the cooker.

Natural Release

Let the ingredients cook under the pressure, steam and the heat that remain inside the cooker. Click on the cancel button and wait for the pressure to be released naturally and the lid automatically unlocks. This process could take at least twenty minutes if the cooker is filled right up to its brim.

Natural ten minute release

When the ingredients have been cooked fully, the cooker will automatically go into the Keep Warm mode. You will need to wait for at least ten minutes before you press the Cancel button. Then twist the handle of the lid to release the steam by moving it to the Venting position.

Chapter Two: Health Benefits of

Using an Instant Pot

An instant pot produces some of the most succulent, easy – to – make and flavorful meals. You may have consumed meals prepared by your mother or your grandmother using an electric cooker. But, you may have shied away from buying yourself for numerous reasons. There are numerous health benefits to using an instant pot or electric cooker to prepare your meals. Let us take a look at a few health benefits of the instant pot.

Superior Nutrient Retention

Numerous researches that have been conducted to assess the nutrients in our foods have concluded that the nutrient percentage in our food has declined by 50% in some foods and even more in others. This is due to the decrease in the nutrients in the soil. When this is combined with the different ways that we cook our food all the nutrients that are left in the vegetables are drained away giving your body minimal or no nutritional value.

An instant pot reduces the time taken to cook the food, which is directly proportional to the lesser number of nutrients being lost. Let us take a look at a few conclusions from research conducted on the benefits of instant pots:

It was found that pressure-cooking always retained vitamin C and the beta- carotene in both amaranth and spinach.

It was found in a study that was published in the Journal of Food Science that broccoli when cooked in a pressure cooker always retained 90% of its vitamin C content. When broccoli is boiled, close to 50% of the Vitamin C is lost.

It was found that the phenolic in bananas are increased when they are pressure cooked as opposed to being boiled, fried or steamed. It was believed that pressure-cooking broke the cell walls in the bananas making the nutrients more available.

You not only increase the nutrients that you are giving your body but are also keeping it away from any harmful compounds when you cook using an instant pot instead of using conventional cooking methods.

Reduces harmful compounds

The food always stays moist when cooked in an instant pot since every pressure cooker uses ‘steam under pressure’ cooking. The ingredients in the cooker are all coated and bathed in the steam, which produces succulent and tastier food. This method of cooking also eliminates two compounds that are known to have caused cancer – acrylamide and heterocyclic amines. These compounds are produced when food is cooked at very high temperatures.

There are concerns about how phytic acid and lectins, two anti – nutrients found in legumes, grains and pseudo grains, bind themselves to the minerals and vitamins making them difficult for the body to digest. The instant pot helps here too.

A study that was published in ‘Plant Foods for Human Nutrition’ stated that peas when soaked overnight and boiled the following morning retained close to 70% of their phytic acid content. However, when they were soaked overnight and cooked in a pressure cooker, the reduction in phytic acid was almost 60%.

Improves Digestibility

It is true that people are not what they eat. It is what your body absorbs from the food you consume. It is essential that you boost the digestibility of the food you eat in order to maximize the nutritional value of every morsel that you eat. An instant pot helps you achieve this too.

The pressure and steam in the cooker can cook the toughest meats easily. Every ingredient is cooked to perfection and is soft and tender. This makes it very easy for your body to digest it.

For certain ingredients that are generally hard to digest are cooked soft enough to ensure that their digestibility increases by 84%.

Weight Loss

For all the reasons mentioned above, an instant pot can aid in your weight loss goal.

The food you eat is more nutritious and will satisfy your appetite. The nutrients that are absorbed by your body will be used to produce energy throughout the day. This will reduce your hunger and also reduce your appetite. You will however need to exercise to ensure that you have lasting effects.

Chapter Three: Low Carb Broth Recipes

Meat Broth

Ingredients
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from sea to rock in elusive reflections. Pine-covered cliffs reveal fissures and coves where fragrant boughs brush against water. From a plateau rises a four-thousand-year-old village of tombs, all that remains of the goddess-worshipping Lycians who settled in the fertile, protected valleys.

Today, our boat shelters in a bay where Phoenician traders once dropped anchor, and where we find the ruins of an ancient city glimmering beneath turquoise water. We climb over rocks onto the shore and see a girl standing in a grove of olive trees. Her hair is wrapped in a scarf edged with tiny shells and tied at the crown of her head.

She gathers olives that have fallen to the ground and studies us, two women in sunglasses, shorts and hiking boots. Gravely, she places a handful of the bitter, green fruit on a stone ledge, an offering. And then she darts away.

The Gulf of Fethiye in the ancient Lycian capitol of Telmessos, home of King Croesus

◁ Anatolian Nut Mix

MAKES 3 CUPS (385 g)

When we grow nostalgic about our travels through Anatolia, we invite friends to Meze Fridays. Austin, a regular visitor to our kitchen, is in charge of roasting the nuts, patiently turning and stirring them in an old cast-iron skillet to achieve that spice-crusted perfection. This combination of walnuts from the Aegean, pistachios from the southeast and hazelnuts from the Black Sea is a favorite. Dried mint adds a bright note, and Aleppo pepper a warm kick. If you wish, toss 1 cup (220 g) of Savory Spiced Chickpeas into the mix. Serve warm as part of a meze platter, or with a glass of rakı or ouzo poured over ice with water.

* * *

1 teaspoon Aleppo pepper

1 teaspoon kosher salt

1 teaspoon dried mint

1 tablespoon butter

1 cup (120 g) whole raw walnuts

1 cup (130 g) raw shelled pistachios

1 cup (135 g) hazelnuts or 1 cup (120 g) cashews

* * *

In a small bowl, combine the Aleppo pepper, salt and dried mint.

Melt the butter in a large cast-iron or other heavy skillet over medium heat. Add the walnuts, pistachios and hazelnuts or cashews. Mix to coat the nuts with the butter.

Turn the heat to low. Sprinkle the spice mixture over the nuts and stir so that they are evenly coated.

Toast the nuts, stirring occasionally, until they are evenly browned and the spices are fragrant, about 10 minutes. Remove from the heat, stir the nuts again and let them cool in the pan. They will continue to crisp as they cool.

Once completely cooled, store the nuts in a sealed container. They will stay fresh for 2 weeks on the counter and 6 months in the refrigerator. To refresh the nuts before serving, heat them in a pan over low heat for 5 minutes.

◁ Quick Saltwater and Lemon Pickles

SERVES 8 TO 12 AS AN APPETIZER

From our first bite in a taverna overlooking a sweep of turquoise-blue water, we were hooked on saltwater and lemon pickles. Ridiculously simple to make, this take on a classic relish tray—carrot, celery, cucumber sticks—pleases everyone. For a softer pickle, prepare up to 24 hours in advance and let the vegetables marinate in the refrigerator. For crunchier pickles, make them just before serving. For parties, we like to serve the pickles in small mason jars filled halfway with the brine. Traditionally eaten with rakı, they are perfect with cocktails.

Fennel tastes great but will impart a pronounced licorice flavor to all the vegetables. The fennel can also be brined and served separately or added to the mix. Radishes make a flavorful addition; red radishes, however, will turn the brine pink, so they too can be brined separately. The parsley turns mellow when added to the brine and makes a very compelling snack when plucked from the jar.

* * *

2 cups (473 ml) cool water

1 tablespoon kosher salt

1/2 cup (120 ml) lemon juice

1 tablespoon flat-leaf parsley

3 allspice berries

3 whole peppercorns

2 medium cucumbers, peeled, seeded and cut into thin 6-inch (15-cm) sticks

4 medium carrots, cut into thin 6-inch (15-cm) sticks

6 stalks celery, cut into thin 6-inch (15-cm) sticks

1 fennel bulb, sliced (optional)

1 bunch radishes, sliced in half (optional)

* * *

Put cool water into a shallow nonreactive dish. Add the salt and mix until it dissolves. Stir in the lemon juice, parsley, allspice berries and peppercorns.

Add the cucumber, carrot, celery, fennel and radishes, or divide the brine and marinate the fennel and radishes separately, according to your preference. All the vegetables should be covered with the brine.

Let the vegetables marinate for 30 minutes to 1 hour before serving. You also can make the pickles ahead of time and keep them in the refrigerator for up to 5 days. The pickles get better as they absorb more brine.

Yogurt Dip with Cucumber and Mint (Çaçik)

SERVES 6 TO 8

Almost all cultures of greater Anatolia
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roplane to grate a hunk of Parm over vegetables before roasting or after steaming; a peeler to shave it over salads into long, thin ribbons; and my knife to crumble it into pea-sized nuggets to sprinkle over soups, stews, and warm grains.

PRESERVED LEMONS

Just when I thought I couldn’t love a lemon more, I tasted a preserved lemon. Salty as hell, tangy beyond my wildest dreams, and the color of sunshine, what’s not to be absolutely obsessed with? Preserved lemons are significantly softer with less bitterness than a regular lemon, so it’s the perfect gateway to using the whole thing. They’re good finely chopped into a relish, thinly sliced into half-moons for punchy salads, left whole and simmered with stews, or smashed into butter to spread on radishes. A little goes a long way, so when experimenting with them in the kitchen, start by adding a small amount at a time (for example, a quarter of a lemon). While good-quality preserved lemons are actually not that easy to find, they are worth seeking out. Better yet? Make your own (check out this page to see how).

Spicy Stuff

BLACK PEPPER

Freshly cracked black pepper is incomparable to the pre-ground stuff, which I’m pretty sure might be just ground-up old newspapers, because it really has no taste. Freshly cracked pepper, on the other hand, is actually remarkably spicy (dare I say piquant?), with a kind of floral vibe that is so special there’s a reason nearly every recipe in the world calls for it.

So, please, if you don’t already own one, get a pepper grinder (and some black peppercorns!), because it’s worth it. I promise.

DRIED CHILES

My mom went into labor on a night she craved spicy Thai food, and while I’m sure that’s probably pretty common, I’ll go ahead and say that it’s the reason I feel the need for nearly everything I eat to be just a little spicy. Rather than reach for a bottle of too-sweet or too-tangy hot sauce, I like the fruity, toasty flavors of dried chiles. Whole chile de árbol, crushed red pepper flakes, and Aleppo pepper all have their own jars right next to my salt and olive oil, which means, more often than not, I’m reaching for at least one of those things. Each has its own flavor, heat level, and texture, making for different and unique applications.

I use chile de árbol when I want a suggestion of heat without committing to eating the actual chile (I often pick them out), as in soups or braises. Fiery crushed red pepper flakes are for sprinkling on a dish, either before or after cooking, to make it spicy and fruity. They are especially good sautéed in olive oil that has already had garlic or shallots added to it. I use sweet and smoky Aleppo pepper like crushed red pepper flakes, but also for finishing a dish as I would use flaky salt, or in things that never get cooked, like salsa verde or gremolata. Aleppo pepper isn’t really all that spicy, which means you can use a lot more of it than crushed red pepper flakes.

HARISSA

Harissa is a spicy paste made from hot chiles, garlic, and spices. Its texture ranges from a tomato paste to a thick sauce, and it lacks the sweetness often found in many store-bought hot sauces. It’s one of the few “hot sauces” used for cooking, rather than as a straight-up condiment, which makes sense because (like tomato paste) the flavor really does get better when it’s caramelized in a skillet, roasted onto meat or fish, or fried in olive oil. While harissa is certainly becoming more popular, there still isn’t one standout brand that I’ve found in the States. Harissa comes in a tube, in a can, or in a jar. Some harissas are sweeter, some have no spices at all, some are unbearably spicy, some you can eat by the spoonful. My advice is to sample the ones you can find and always try a little before proceeding with the recipe to make sure you like it. For what it’s worth, I have found harissas that come in tubes to be the spiciest, whereas the ones in jars are typically tempered with tomato or roasted red peppers.

YUZU KOSHO

Yuzu kosho is not as popular as it should be, and I have no idea why. A fermented paste made from Japanese yuzu fruit, green chiles, and salt, it’s got funk and flavor for miles. If crushed red pepper flakes are my white clogs, yuzu kosho is the pair of pink Rachel Comey patent leather platform heels I bought on a whim and wear twice a year, but when I do, I am so glad I bought them. Because the yuzu flavor (think sour lemon meets floral grapefruit) is so pronounced, it’s a little less all-purpose than some of the other things in this category (like crushed red pepper flakes or black pepper), but it’s got this charming heat that really sneaks up on you when you least expect it and just the most unique and delicious salty, citrusy flavor. I whisk it into dressings for cold noodles (this page) and shaved vegetable salads, massage it onto cabbage for slaws, and dollop it into
bre 8g

Good source of vitamin A

Excellent source of low-fat protein

Pulse Flours

Almost any pulse can be ground into a flour, but white beans, chickpeas, and black beans are the most common. They don’t contain gluten, so they’re an excellent addition to restricted diets.

Pulse flours taste different from traditional wheat flour, each with a unique flavour profile. Use them for baking, soups, dips, and bread, as well as for binding and thickening. Substituting some or all of the wheat flour in recipes with a pulse flour adds extra nutrition to your cooking. When used for baking, you’ll need to combine pulse flours with another gluten-free or traditional wheat flour to help mixtures rise.

White bean flour

This flour is extremely mild. When combined with stabilizers such as Xanthan gum or potato starch, white bean flour is an excellent substitute in gluten-free baking. Its creamy texture makes it a natural addition to soups, sauces, and gravies.

Nutrition per 100g:

Calories 155 Protein 10g

Carbohydrates 28g Fibre 11g

Good source of folate and manganese

Excellent source of phosphorous

Black bean flour

Ground from black turtle beans, black bean flour has a deep, rich, earthy flavour. It’s sometimes simply mixed with water and served as a dip, but it can also be used a thickener or filling in Mexican recipes.

Nutrition per 100g:

Calories 171 Protein 11g

Carbohydrates 31g Fibre 7g

Good source of dietary fibre

Excellent source of low-fat protein

Chickpea flour

This is one of the most versatile pulse flours. It’s creamy, sweet, and slightly nutty, making it a great addition to baked goods and pizza dough. Use it in recipes that contain bold flavours, such as pumpkin bread or Middle Eastern dishes.

Nutrition per 100g:

Calories 211 Protein 11g

Carbohydrates 26g Fibre 7g

Good source of iron

Excellent source of dietary fibre

How to cook pulses

Cooking dried pulses rewards you with depth of flavour and control of variables such as consistency and salt levels. Simmering on the hob is the most common method, but you can also use a slow cooker or pressure cooker.

1 prepare

Sort the pulses on a baking tray, removing broken and irregular pieces as well as foreign objects, such as small stones. Then remove any dirt and grit by rinsing the pulses in a fine sieve.

2 Soak

Place the pulses in a large bowl and cover with cool water to about 5cm (2in) above the level of the pulses. Most should soak for 8 hours or overnight.

3 Drain & rinse

Drain and rinse the pulses again in a fine sieve under cool water, to wash away impurities or toxins released by soaking.

4 Cook

Transfer to a stock pot. Cover with water to at least 5cm (2in) above the level of the pulses. Bring to the boil, reduce to a simmer and cook according to the pulse’s cooking time. Periodically skim off any foam that develops on the surface.

5 Check

For a perfectly cooked batch, check your pulses within the suggested cooking time range by pinching and tasting a few from the pot.

Perfect

A perfectly cooked, tender pulse will yield easily when pinched and is soft throughout while maintaining its shape.

Undercooked

An undercooked pulse is too firm and will not give when pinched, indicating that it needs more cooking time.

Overcooked

An overcooked pulse is mushy and loses its shape, but you can still salvage the batch for dips, spreads, and purées.

Adding flavour

For a robust flavour, use stock instead of water, and add bay leaves, onions, garlic, and other aromatics to the cooking liquid. However, don’t add salt until the last half hour of cooking. Salt added too early can toughen the skins and prolong cooking time.

Batch cooking & freezing

Most cooked pulse varieties freeze well, making it easy to keep them on hand. Let cooked pulses dry and cool completely, then portion into airtight plastic freezer bags. They will keep safely in the fridge for up to 3 days or in the freezer for several months without losing nutritional value.

Using canned beans

Canned beans can be used in place of home-cooked beans in any recipe. Make sure you thoroughly rinse them first, because the canning liquid can nearly double the salt content. A 400g (14oz) can contains about 230–250g (8½–9oz) drained beans.

Sprouting

Sprouted pulses are fresh, crisp, and bursting with nutrients. Before you start, make sure you select a pulse variety that is suitable for sprouting.

1 In a large jar, generously cover the pulses with water. Cover the jar with cheesecloth and secure. Soak in a cool, dark place for 8 hours or overnight.

2 Drain the jar. Run fresh water through to rinse the pulses once or twice. Then tip the

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