- Full Title: Ready in Minutes
- Autor: Alan Coxon
- Print Length: 176 pages
- Publisher: NEW HOLLAND PUBLISHE
- Publication Date: March 1, 2005
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 1770070273
- ISBN-13: 978-1770070271
- Download File Format | Size: epub | 17,11 Mb
Kids and Busy Adults
“ From simple treats to a hearty meal, these fast, easy, and kid-
friendly recipes feel more like notes from a friend than a
cookbook—just the antidote for the family on a twenty-fi rst
— Jax Peters Lowell, author of Against the Grain and
The Gluten-Free Bible
“ Connie Sarros’s new edition is such a welcome resource. Not only are her recipes quick and simple to prepare, but they also call for wholesome ingredients that pack an extra nutritional punch, and
they’re consistently delicious. Bravo to Connie for yet another
exceptional gluten-free cookbook!”
—Danna Korn, founder of R.O.C.K. (Raising Our
Celiac Kids) and author of Living Gluten-Free for
Dummies, Gluten-Free Cooking for Dummies, Kids
with Celiac Disease, and Wheat-Free, Worry-Free
“ With our fast-paced society and hectic lifestyles, Connie’s book is a lifesaver! The recipes use common ingredients and are quick and
easy to prepare. This is one cookbook that you will use over and
— Shelley Case, R.D. , consulting dietitian and
author of Gluten-Free Diet
“ You will love even more delicious recipes in this revised edition that appeals to both kids and busy adults! Connie has provided
information for dairy sensitivities in addition to wheat- and
gluten-free concerns, plus nutritional details—all of which
facilitate easy meal planning for the whole family.”
—Janet Y. Rinehart, chairman of Houston Celiac
Support Group and former president of Celiac
Spruce Association/USA, Inc.
“ Connie Sarros is serious about cooking gluten free, and she is enormously clever. There is something for everyone in this happy
cookbook, which is dedicated to children and busy adults. When
you need a meal and don’t have much time or energy, you’re sure
to fi nd something you can pull off—and smile while you’re
—Ann Whelan, editor/publisher of
“ From fi nger foods to family meals, Connie once again shows us that the gluten-free diet is not restrictive but merely a variety of delicious substitutions. The kitchen hints and cooking techniques section will enable all young cooks to be hands-on in the kitchen with their food choices.”
— Elaine Monarch, founder/executive director of
Celiac Disease Foundation
“ This book is a wonderful addition to the increasing variety of
resources available to people who require a gluten-free diet. It is easy to read and the content is superb!”
— Peter H. R. Green, M.D. , director of
Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
Cookbook for Kids
and Busy Adults
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Copyright © 2010 by Connie Sarros. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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00 g/3.5 oz distilled water
100 g/3.5 oz glucose syrup
120 g/4.2 oz all-purpose flour
80 g/2.8 oz distilled water
100 g/3.5 oz green apple puree
2 g/0.071 oz (1⁄4 tsp) kosher salt or fine sea salt
5 g/0.18 oz (1 tsp) granulated sugar
80 g/2.8 oz walnut oil
200 g/7.1 oz whole eggs (about 4 eggs)
1 whole egg for egg wash
Apple Caramel Cream:
100 g/3.5 oz green apple puree
100 g/3.5 oz granulated sugar
50 g/1.8 oz unsalted butter
Pinch of salt
1 g/0.035 oz (1⁄2 tsp) ground toasted fennel seeds
100 g/3.5 oz mascarpone cheese, at room temperature
200 g/7.1 oz heavy whipping cream
Assembly and Decoration:
45 g/1.6 oz granulated sugar
35 g/1.2 oz distilled water
300 g/10.6 oz pastry fondant
Green gel food coloring
Pastry Fondant (makes about 600 g/21.2 oz fondant):
1. Combine the sugar and water in a medium-sized stainless steel saucepan. Heat the mixture over medium heat. Stir constantly with a spatula until the sugar is dissolved.
2. When the sugar syrup comes to a boil, stir in the glucose syrup . Bring the mixture back to a boil.
3. Insert a candy thermometer and stop stirring. Increase the heat to medium-high. Continue to cook the sugar; brush down the sides of the pan with a pastry brush dipped in cold water to prevent sugar crystals from forming.
4. Cook the sugar until it reaches 118°C/244°F. Let cool slightly. Pour the syrup into a food processor  and cover the food processor bowl tightly with plastic wrap.
5. Let the syrup cool to 80°C/176°F. Turn on the food processor. Mix until the syrup turns opaque, white, and glossy [3, 4].
6. Immediately transfer the white fondant into a plastic bag or other container. Cover and let it rest at room temperature overnight before using it. The fondant will become softer and more pliable.
1. Sift the flour onto a piece of parchment paper. Transfer the sifted flour to a bowl and reserve.
2. Combine the water, apple puree, salt, sugar, and walnut oil in a large stainless steel saucepan; heat the mixture over medium-high heat .
3. When the mixture comes to a boil, remove the saucepan from heat. Carefully whisk the sifted flour into the mixture . When all the flour is incorporated into the liquid, shake off lumps of dough from the whisk and switch to a spatula or wooden spoon.
4. Return the saucepan to medium-low heat. Stir the paste using a folding motion to remove any remaining small lumps of flour . Continue to cook for 2 to 3 minutes; stir constantly, using a folding motion to bring the dough pieces together, until a smooth and thick paste is obtained.
5. Transfer the dough to a mixer bowl. Attach the bowl to a mixer fitted with a paddle attachment. Mix the dough at medium speed for 10 to 15 seconds to release the steam.
6. Add the eggs one at a time while continuing to mix on medium speed . Make sure each egg is incorporated before adding additional eggs. Scrape down the sides of the mixer bowl with a spatula if necessary. Increase the mixer speed to high. Mix for 10 to 20 seconds or until a smooth paste forms .
7. Meanwhile, line a half-sheet baking pan with a silicone baking mat or parchment paper. Preheat the oven to 191°C/375°F.
8. Fill a large pastry bag (45.7-cm/18-in) fitted with a 1.3-cm/0.5-in plain tip (#806) with the choux paste. Pipe the paste into 2.5-cm/1-in mounds with 2.5-cm/1-in spacing on the baking mat or parchment paper . Brush the top with egg wash using a gentle dabbing motion .
9. Bake at 191°C/375°F for about 13 minutes until the choux are puffed up. Reduce the temperature to 177°C/350°F and bake for another 13 minutes until the choux are golden brown. Turn off the oven and leave the choux in the oven undisturbed for another 8 minutes. Remove the baked choux from the oven and let cool completely .
Apple Caramel Cream:
1. To make the apple caramel, place the green apple puree in a medium-sized stainless steel saucepan and set aside.
2. Place the sugar in a large stainless steel saucepan in an even layer. Dry melt the sugar over medium heat undisturbed for 3 to 5 minutes.
3. Meanwhile, heat the puree over high heat. Remove the pan from heat when the puree comes to a boil. Reserve.
4. When most of the sugar underneath the top layer of granules is melted and has turned a golden color, reduce the heat to low. Stir occasionally with a spatula
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Massenware und damit den Preisvorteil des modernen Weizens verzichten. Bedenken Sie dabei jedoch, dass man bei weizenfreier Ernährung im Durchschnitt pro Kopf 400 Kalorien weniger verzehrt als andere Menschen. Es muss also insgesamt weniger Nahrung zubereitet oder gekauft werden, was schon an und für sich einen Vorteil darstellt. Eine vierköpfige Familie verbraucht rund 1600 Kalorien weniger als früher, was schon beinahe der Kalorienbedarf einer zusätzlichen Person ist. Die meisten Leute, die auf weizenfreie Ernährung umstellen und schon vorher ein bestimmtes Budget für Lebensmittel hatten, berichten daher, dass ihre Ausgaben unverändert oder geringfügig niedriger geworden sind als zu Weizenzeiten.
Falls Sie schon länger weizenfrei leben, kann das vorliegende Kochbuch Ihnen zeitsparende, neue Anregungen für die Alltagsküche, aber auch Ideen für besondere Anlässe liefern. Wer dachte, ein Leben ohne Weizen und andere ungesunde Lebensmittel sei langweilig und eintönig, dem steht eine echte Überraschung bevor. Machen Sie sich auf mehr Würze und Abwechslung gefasst! Es gibt auch neue Variationen aus der internationalen Küche, ob aus Marokko, Indien, China, Mexiko oder Italien, und natürlich weizenfreie Varianten von Gerichten, die in Amerika besonders beliebt sind. Ob Pizza, Suppe, Sandwich, Brötchen, Käsekuchen oder Barbecuesauce – kaum etwas lässt sich nicht auch ohne ungesunde Zutaten in maximal einer halben Stunde zubereiten. Überblättern Sie bitte keinesfalls den Abschnitt mit Desserts und Naschideen. Dort warten interessante Köstlichkeiten darauf, entdeckt und ausprobiert zu werden.
Für alle, die sich mit der weizenfreien Küche noch nicht auskennen, sind die hier vorgestellten Rezepte ein großer Schritt zu einem selbstbewussten Start in die neue Lebensweise, ohne dabei auf Geschmack zu verzichten oder sich völlig überfordert zu fühlen. Ja, bestimmte Zutaten verwenden wir nicht; stattdessen gibt es so manches, was Ihnen bisher möglicherweise fremd war. Auch beim Backen und Andicken gibt es einiges zu lernen. Als Belohnung winkt mehr Gesundheit, und Sie merken rasch, wie nicht nur bestimmte Beschwerden verschwinden, sondern auch etliche Zentimeter Bauchumfang, und das ganz ohne anstrengende Appetitzügelung.
Schreiten wir also zur Tat. Im ersten Kapitel geht es darum, wie wir die weizenfreie Küche zeit- und arbeitssparend angehen können, damit wir im vorgegebenen Zeitrahmen von maximal einer halben Stunde pro Gericht bleiben können.
Der erste Schritt ins weizenfreie Leben besteht im rigorosen Aussortieren aller weizenhaltigen Produkte in Küche und Speisekammer. Nur so können Sie der Versuchung widerstehen, irgendwann doch noch die letzten Schokokekse und all die anderen Notrationen zu vertilgen und damit alle bisherigen Erfolge zunichtezumachen. Außerdem sinkt dadurch die Gefahr einer versehentlichen Reexposition, die nicht nur Verdauungsbeschwerden (wie Blähungen, Krämpfe und Durchfall), sondern auch Gelenkschmerzen und Asthma auslösen und sich auch auf die Gefühlslage auswirken kann.
Der zweite Schritt besteht im Einkaufen bestimmter Zutaten, die den Weizen künftig ersetzen werden. Beispielsweise benötigen Sie für den gesunden weizenfreien Alltag neue Mehlarten, um Sandwiches, Kekse und andere Backwaren herstellen zu können. Und damit alle Gerichte wirklich in einer halben Stunde fertig sind, müssen Sie die Küchenausstattung überprüfen und eventuell erweitern. Es geht um einen konsequenten Befreiungsschlag in der Küche, wo wir künftig im Handumdrehen ausgewogene, schmackhafte, weizenfreie Gerichte zaubern wollen.
Dieses Buch liefert die nötigen Grundlagen für alle, die ohne Weizen und Gluten auskommen möchten oder müssen. Denn Weizenverzicht ist nicht nur für diejenigen wichtig, die nachweislich an Zöliakie leiden oder überempfindlich auf Gluten reagieren. Jeder darf sich angesprochen fühlen. Besonders interessant sind die hier vorgestellten Tipps und Rezepte selbstverständlich für alle, die von Zöliakie oder Glutensensitivität betroffen sind. Dieser Personenkreis muss allerdings besonders akribisch darauf achten, keinerlei Gluten zu sich zu nehmen. Achten Sie in diesem Fall unbedingt auf Produkte, die ausdrücklich als »glutenfrei« gekennzeichnet sind, um Kreuzkontaminationen zu vermeiden.
Bevor ich näher darauf eingehe, was Sie für Ihr neues Leben brauchen, widmen wir uns Schritt 1:
Die Küche durchforsten
Bitte beachten: Weizenhaltige Produkte enthalten Gliadin, das im Verdauungstrakt in verschiedene Substanzen zerlegt wird, die sich an die Opiatrezeptoren im Gehirn anheften. Sie machen nicht euphorisch und lindern keine Schmerzen, sondern erhöhen den Appetit. Wer sich von den gnadenlos appetitanregenden Auswirkungen des Weizens, dem ständigen innerlichen Kreisen ums Essen und der erhöhten, aber unnötigen Kalorienaufnahme befreit, kann Appetit, Gewicht und Gesundheit in d
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he mixture through a coarse sieve using the back of a ladle, or, better still, a mouli-légumes (vegetable mill), then pass this through a finer sieve to remove the seeds. Job done. Keep in a screw-top bottle in the fridge, where it will stay fresh for 4–5 days. Shake well before use.
I buy my everyday olive oil from Garcia on Portobello Road. However, two very particular olive oils – one from Tuscany, the other from Provence –need special mention. The Italian one is Cappezana, from a medieval estate that has been producing olive oil since 804 AD. This I only ever use for fine dressings or spooning over thick slices of fresh mozzarella, or it’s creamy cousin, burrata. I would also use it to dress the choicest sliced tomatoes, on the rare occasion that I may find them in West London, on a warm summer’s day.
The French oil is from Le Moulin de Jean-Marie Cornille, in the village of Maussane-les-Alpilles, near St. Rèmy de Provence, but is generally known simply as Huile de Maussane. I know of no other oil as fragrantly pungent as this one, although it has a refinement and individuality that, for me, is unique. When used to fabricate golden aïoli, it is peerless.
Tomato jelly with basil & goat’s cheese
Before writing this book, I had never needed to use a vegetarian gelling agent, namely agar-agar, although I knew vaguely of its seaweed origins, so highly prized in Japan. In Ireland, carragheen moss, a different variety of seaweed is used for the purpose, notably in the pudding known, not surprisingly, as Carragheen moss pudding. I had no idea of the setting properties of agar-agar or, clearly, how much to use. On using it, I discovered that the instructions on the packet gave a set that was very much too firm; well, for me, it was. I spent a great deal of time experimenting with the set, and the resultant, delicate texture achieved in the following recipe is one of enormous finesse, melting in the mouth in the nicest possible way. Agar flakes, however, will not produce a crystal clear jelly in the way conventional gelatine leaves do. Or, at least, they didn’t for me. However, an agar jelly has the advantage that it does not form a skin. Note that it will eventually set at room temperature, too.
2 heaped tsp agar flakes
500g ripest tomatoes (cherry, small plum or very ripe summer tomatoes), finely chopped or processed to a mush
1 tsp Maldon salt
1 tsp sugar
pinch of dried chilli flakes
125g soft goat’s cheese
1 heaped tbsp soured cream
1 small clove garlic, crushed to a paste with a little Maldon salt
small handful of basil leaves, chopped fine
freshly ground white pepper
Put the stock into a stainless steel pan, sprinkle over the agar flakes but do not stir in. Allow to come up to a gentle simmer and then swirl the pan around over the heat, until the flakes begin to melt. Simmer for 3–4 minutes and then add the tomatoes, salt, sugar and chilli. Bring up to just under simmering point and then pass through a fine sieve suspended over a bowl. Initially, simply allow the juice to drip through, then carefully move the tomato pulp around with a spoon to coax more juice out, but do not force or press it.
Meanwhile, thoroughly mix the goat’s cheese, soured cream, garlic, basil and pepper together in a bowl. Spoon into the base of four small glass beakers (or similar), dividing it equally.
Now take the bowl of tomato liquid and place it over a larger bowl filled with ice cubes and water. Taking a metal spoon, gently stir the liquid around until it just begins to gel; about 10 minutes, but note that when it starts to gel, it will happen quite swiftly.
Spoon the jelly over the cheese mixture and place in the fridge to set for about 1 hour – the jellies are best eaten there and then. Serve with teaspoons and eat with thin, hot buttered toast. An elegant summer first course, eaten out of doors.
Tomato salad with basil cream dressing & olive oil
I first recall eating tomato salad with a cream dressing at the Italian restaurant Montpeliano, in London’s Knightsbridge. It must have been in the late 1970s, soon after I had first arrived in London. When the salad arrived, we were somewhat surprised to receive two large white plates covered with ripest red, sliced tomatoes, anointed with a generous dressing of what looked like double cream. That was until we tasted it. Ice cold and almost sweet and sour, this cream dressing was just fabulous. Freshly torn basil leaves, a grinding of pepper from the handsome waiter (giant mills all the rage, then) and a trickle of good olive oil shining in rivulets upon its creamy surface… Just perfect.
1 ½ tbsp white wine vinegar
2 tbsp warm water
Maldon salt and freshly ground pepper
75ml whipping cream
50ml extra virgin olive oil, plus a little extra
pinch of sugar
7–8 basil leaves, torn or chopped
4 ripe, medium tomatoes, cored and sli
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“Layer”: Layered cocktails create a visible layering of ingredients and are often just for appearances. Sometimes the layering or separating of ingredients adds a complexity to the drink, allowing the tastes to evolve and change with each sip. Other times the layered drinks can be stirred after they’ve made their grand debut.
“Shake”: Any drink that contains fruit juice, dairy, or eggs is generally meant to be shaken. To do this, fill your mixing glass with all ingredients, top with ice, and cover it with the shaker at a slight angle. Then tap the metal shaker with the heel of your hand until the two are sealed. Use both hands (especially if you’re a beginner!) to shake it like hell.
“Stir”: All drinks made solely from liquors and syrups should generally be stirred. In a mixing glass, build your cocktail (in the order you’re in the habit of—bitters on up for me), fill the glass with ice, and stir gently with a bar spoon for about 15 seconds, until the drink is chilled and the ingredients are dispersed.
“Strain”: Whether you’re trying to separate your cocktail from the ice that chilled it, or you’re trying to strain out ingredients you may have used while mixing (mint or muddled cherries, for example), using your strainer is key. It also minimizes mess by keeping the contents safe inside your mixing glass. To use a Hawthorne strainer (the one with the coil, which can be found at most kitchen or home-ware stores), place the flexible coils on the inside of the glass until the inner plate is flat on top, hold in place, and pour.
“Garnish”: Often an oversight with home barkeeps, these finishing touches are integral to many drinks. Common garnishes such as lemon, orange, or lime wedges can allow the imbiber to adjust the flavors to their liking. Other garnishes like citrus twists and mint sprigs add a final touch of soft oils and aromas to a drink. Cherries and olives? Eating these is often one of the best parts of Martinis, Manhattans, and the like. Whatever the garnish, don’t overlook it!
Don’t be intimidated by all the cocktail jargon spouted out at your local haunt! Here are some of the most useful ways to describe and modify your classic cocktails.
“Perfect”: Believe it or not, there’s not just one type of perfect in this world. Different standards of beauty, you say? Yes indeed! You can have a Perfect Martini or Perfect Manhattan. It just means instead of sticking to one type of vermouth (whichever the standard recipe calls for), you use equal parts sweet and dry. Yes, we can have it all!
“Dry”: Less vermouth than the standard recipe calls for. So the less vermouth you use, the drier the Martini is considered to be. This has nothing to do with the type of vermouth being used (dry or sweet), just the amount.
“Very Dry”/“Extra Dry”/“Bone Dry”: Just a whisper of vermouth, if any—a rinse of the glass works just fine. To most, an extra-dry Martini means you can probably just omit the vermouth altogether (when in doubt, just ask your Martini-loving pal to clarify their exact preference).
“Wet”: Refers to the amount, or ratio, of vermouth to spirit. A wet Martini, for example, just refers to more vermouth than the recipe’s standard.
“Dirty”: The addition of a splash of olive juice (equal parts with your dry vermouth) to a Martini before mixing.
“Extra Dirty”: The addition of a bigger splash of olive juice to a Martini.
“Up”: In a chilled coupe or Martini glass. (Best if you get all riled “up” and demand your cocktail to be served cold and without ice!)
“On the Rocks”: Served over ice.
“Neat”: Served in a rocks glass with no ice.
ALCHEMY: Role of bitters, sugar, mixers, syrups, herbs & elixirs. (A nod to the history of alchemy and “stirring things up.”)
Alchemy, essentially, is the process of mixing certain solutions or ingredients together to create or convert matter. Translation? Chemistry . . . or, ahem, cocktail-crafting (some even call it “mixology”), depending on how you look at it. The earliest records of Western female alchemists date back to the third century AD. Mary the Jewess and Cleopatra the Alchemist allegedly knew the formula to create the Philosopher’s Stone, an elixir that could transform mercury into gold and provide longer, healthier lives—even immortality.
Now, I’m not saying the perfect Rye Manhattan has been known to produce similar results, but I’m also not not saying that. Alchemy is universal and noted in all recorded history, very often associated with the occult and magic. In essence, it’s an evolving science of cause and effect, precision as well as improvisation, and sensitivity to the senses.
Mixing drinks is the same. It’s art and science: when you measure correctly and with all variables in place, supposedly you can reproduce a consistent, perfect result. But so much is about experim
growing seasons, soil changes, and more—all of which affect their individual taste and terroir. The same factors apply to wheat. Different varieties of wheat grow well in different regions. For example, the varieties that flourish in the Northeast may not do well in the Pacific Northwest. At Hewn, we choose flours based on what farmers are growing and milling in our region, but also on the nuanced taste and texture each variety of wheat produces when used in baking. Some are great for hearty, rustic breads, while others work better for lighter breads and baked goods.
We love Turkey Red for our rustic whole-wheat loaves, for example, because it’s a hearty wheat with an earthy and caramelized taste that produces a tender crumb. It also pairs incredibly well in a muffin that’s sweetened with dried fruit.
We love getting our hands on freshly milled Red Fife, which has a slightly milder taste than the Turkey Red. And our latest obsession, a flour milled from Rouge de Bordeaux, has a sharpness to it that brings out the sourdough notes, but also takes on a warm, rich flavor when paired with dark chocolate. Regional flour also infuses a little nuttiness and more complex flavors beyond just butter and sugar when used in cookies and other baked goods.
When we baked our first loaves with a locally sourced stone-milled whole wheat, I thought someone accidentally dumped cinnamon in the bread mix; it turns out that a type of rock in the soil the wheat was grown in causes that flavor. I worried our customers would hate it, but they ended up thinking it was really interesting. This is the beauty of sourcing local heritage wheat.
DEFINING HERITAGE WHEAT
The official definition of heritage wheat remains a subject of debate, but most agronomists define it as varieties that were grown in the United States before World War II. At that time, synthetic fertilizers and other chemical-laden inputs were introduced to grow crops on a much wider scale in order to feed the growing masses.
Landrace wheat is a label given to heritage varieties that have grown in a region for decades—even hundreds of years—and have adapted to the region’s environment. The term landrace in general refers to a domesticated variety of animal species or plants that have developed over time through adaptation to the natural environment and with or without agricultural inputs.
Before industrialized wheat became more commonplace in the mid-1900s, many heritage varieties were selected in the fields by smaller farmers for the specific traits they wanted. Some varieties were grown for their flavor and bread-baking ability. Others were grown because they could withstand harsher winters and had higher yields. A few wheat varieties could grow as tall as a person. But even though tall wheat blocked out weed growth, it became more vulnerable in the fields, as storms can tip over wheat stalks.
After World War II, a dwarfing gene was added to wheat to help the crops grow shorter. This helps them better stand up to harsh weather conditions. But shorter stalks meant the wheat competed with weeds for the nutrients in the soil, so herbicides, fertilizers, and insecticides were added to the fields to ensure the wheat would outcompete the weeds and pests.
This was during the height of the Green Revolution in the United States, a time when agricultural production was ramping up fast thanks to the widening use of synthetic fertilizers on farms across the country. Whereas in the past, thousands of wheat varieties naturally adapted to their region, the Green Revolution spurred the narrowing of this selection through large-scale inbreeding to create a more uniform wheat-growing standard and more consistent yields. Modern heritage varieties came about after the 1960s by breeding heritage varieties with newer strains favored for their yield. As a result, today there are only a handful of commodity (modern) wheat varieties that are grown by conventional wheat farms. Also, conventional farms source seed from large seed companies that cannot save seeds. Seed saving is vital for heirloom varieties and held sacred by many cultures. Once, more than 19,000 wheat varieties grew around the world.
It’s important to note that heritage wheat differs from ancient wheat—the group that includes biblical grains like einkorn, emmer, and spelt—which many people favor regardless of their region. These varieties have been grown for several thousand years in all parts of the world. They were the basis for some of the heritage wheat breeds that came later. While we use some of these grains in our baking at Hewn, our focus is on heritage wheats.
One of these heritage varieties was introduced to Central America and the western United States by the Spaniards, who grew wheat for the wafers used in Catholic communion and related religious ceremonies. Over the years, immigrants from other parts of Europe and the Fertile Crescent, which inc